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Results: 17

1.
Fig. 11

Fig. 11. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

NPs and their biophysicochemical characteristics which affect their performance both in vitro and in vivo.

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
2.
Fig. 10

Fig. 10. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Schematic protocol of cell-uptake selection for evolving cancer cell-specific internalizing Apts. Figure taken from Xiao et al.351

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
3.
Fig. 15

Fig. 15. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Strategy for co-encapsulating hydrophobic Dtxl and more hydrophilic Pt(IV)-monosuccinate prodrug on a single nanoparticle. Figure taken from Kolishetti et al.46

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
4.
Fig. 8

Fig. 8. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

PLGA-PEG-RGD and PLGA-PEG-folate triblock polymers used to prepare targeted NPs with different surface ligand densities. Figure taken from Valencia et al.266

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
5.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Common biodegradable polymers utilized in controlled-release drug delivery applications. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glutamic acid) (PGA), poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(caprolactone) (PCL).

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
6.
Fig. 12

Fig. 12. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Development of an array of nano and microparticles with variable shapes and aspect ratios using the PRINT technique by Desimone et al. Figure taken from Wang et al.360

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
7.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Drug release mechanisms from polymeric NPs: (a) diffusion from polymer matrix with time varying diffusivity, (b) surface erosion/degradation of polymer matrix, and (c) biodegradation of polymer matrix due to hydrolytic degradation leading to drug release.

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
8.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

(a) Microfluidic synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles prepared under rapid mixing conditions in 2D flow focusing. (b) 3D flow focusing. Figure adapted from Karnik et al. and Rhee et al.236, 237

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
9.
Fig. 16

Fig. 16. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers and lipids forming hybrid core/shell nanoparticles for siRNA delivery. The unique lipid–polymer–lipid nanostructure is demonstrated by TEM (top right) and fluorescence microscopy (bottom right) with microsized particles. Figure taken from Shi et al.400

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
10.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Self-assembly of triblock PLGA-b-PEG copolymers in aqueous solution: (a) Polymeric NP formation via nanoprecipitation, FG = functional group (b) Conjugation of targeting ligand to the surface of pre-formed polymeric NPs (c) Pre-functionalized diblock polymer with hydrophilic targeting ligand.

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
11.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Self-assembling targeted polymeric NPs. A-B: Synthesis and characterization of PLGA-PEG-Apt triblock polymers. C: Nanoprecipitation leading to the self-assembly of PLGA-PEG-Apt NPs. Aptamer surface density is precisely controlled using distinct ratios of PLGA-PEG-Apt and PLGA- PEG. Figure taken from Gu et al.218

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
12.
Fig. 17

Fig. 17. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Design of fluorescent-labelled DACHPt/m (F-DACHPt/m) for visualization of localization and drug release in cancer cells: (A) F-DACHPt/m self-assembled through polymer-metal complex formation between DACHPt and boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) FL–poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(glutamic acid)–BODIPY TR in distilled water. (B) Schematic representation of hypothetical subcellular pathways and action of DACHPt/m. Figure taken from Murakami et al.423

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
13.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Components of CALAA-01 (Calando Pharmaceuticals-01) – a targeted NP for siRNA delivery: (a) CDP: water-soluble, linear cyclodextrin-containing polymer, AD: adamantane (AD)-PEG conjugate (PEG MW of 5000) (AD-PEG), and Tf-PEG-AD: an adamantane conjugate of PEG (PEGMWof 5000) conjugated with human transferrin (Tf) ligand. (b) CALAA-01 is formulated via a single self-assembly process of four individual components. Figure taken from Davis, M et al.18

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
14.
Fig. 13

Fig. 13. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Different strategies for multi-ligand targeting of NPs: A: Various modes of targeting using single or multi-ligands (Figure taken from Ruoslahti et al.260), B: Dual-targeting where one NP has two different ligands that target receptors on the same cell (Figure adapted from Li et al.341), C: example of cellular and sub-cellular targeting (Figure taken from Ashley et al.383), and D: dual targeting of one peptide to two different receptors on the same cell (Figure adapted from K. Sugahara et al.257).

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
15.
Fig. 9

Fig. 9. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Polymer-lipid hybrid ‘Nanoburr’ particles. A: Polymer-drug conjugate synthesis (Ptxl-PLA), B: HPLC characterization of Ptxl and Ptxl-PLA polymer, C: Nanoburr synthesis via polymer lipid, and lipid-PEG self-assembly, D: TEM image of Nanoburrs (stained with 3% uranyl acetate), E: Dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) pre and post peptide conjugation, F: Zeta potential measurements pre and post peptide onjugation, and G: in vitro drug release profile of Ptxl from Nanoburr NPs. Figure taken from Chan et al.147

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
16.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Time line of clinical stage nanomedicine firsts. Liposomes,9 controlled release polymeric systems for macromolecules,10 dendrimers,11 targeted-PEGylated liposomes,12 first FDA approved liposome (DOXIL),13 long circulating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethyleneglycol (PLGA-PEG) NPs,14 iron oxide MRI contrast agent NP (Ferumoxide),15 protein based drug delivery system (Abraxane; nab technologyt),16 polymeric micelle NP (Genexol-PM),17 targeted cyclodextrin-polymer hybrid NP (CALAA-01),18 targeted polymeric NP (BIND-014; Accurint™ Technology),19 fully integrated polymeric nanoparticle vaccines (SEL-068, t SVPt™ Technology).20

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.
17.
Fig. 14

Fig. 14. From: Targeted polymeric therapeutic nanoparticles: design, development and clinical translation.

Screening targeted NPs from a derived NP library: (a–b) Laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy of NPs. (c) Model of the crosslinked dextran coating NPs modified with small molecules. (d) Water solubility, as well as fluorescent and magnetic properties of NPs. (e) Different classes of small molecules with amino, sulfhydryl, carboxyl or anhydride functionalities anchored onto the NPs. (f) Hemotoxylin eosin–stained sections of the tumours targeting with NPs. (g) Tumour cross-sections observed using the Cy5.5 fluorescence channel indicate marked fluorescence of one identified NP; CLIO-isatoic within tumour cells. (h) Biodistribution study with 111In-labelled NPs confirmed tumoural targeting of CLIO-isatoic NPs. Figure adapted from Weissleder et al.393

Nazila Kamaly, et al. Chem Soc Rev. ;41(7):2971-3010.

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