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Results: 5

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Map of Zanzibar.. From: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

(a) Zantel coverage regions in mainland Tanzania15, (b) Zanzibar and its prevalence rate (%) on the two main islands: Unguja and Pemba

Arnaud Le Menach, et al. Sci Rep. 2011;1:93.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Relative importance of residents on malaria importation.. From: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

Contribution of resident travelers to the net malaria importation rate as a function of the number of imported infections from visitors versus residents (δv/δr) and the length of stay for visitors (Tv). The solid red line represents the contribution threshold below which residents contribute to more than 50% to malaria importation.

Arnaud Le Menach, et al. Sci Rep. 2011;1:93.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Qualitative assessment of malaria importation to Zanzibar and its influence on local malaria dynamics.. From: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

The pathogen can be introduced into the island according to four ways: 1) Zanzibar residents (R) can become infected while traveling abroad and bring it home; 2) infected visitors (V) to Zanzibar can bring the pathogen from mainland Tanzania; 3) infected immigrants (M) travel and settle permanently in Zanzibar; 4) infected vectors travel to Zanzibar either flying or passively carried out by wind or riding along human means of transportations. Once introduced, the probability for further transmission is based on the length and the receptivity of the area where the pathogen is imported, defining the net importation rate.

Arnaud Le Menach, et al. Sci Rep. 2011;1:93.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Quantitative assessment of the impact of malaria importation on local malaria dynamics.. From: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

The effect of vulnerability (the number of imported malaria per year per 1,000 inhabitants, δ) and of receptivity (the effective reproductive number, Rc) on, (a) the parasite rate (PR), and (b) the proportion of local infection among all malaria infection. The red dashed line represents the empirical estimation of δ in Zanzibar according to the travel assessment survey, which is of 1.6 imported malaria cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year. The solid red line represents the contribution threshold above which local infections contribute to more than 50% to total malaria prevalence

Arnaud Le Menach, et al. Sci Rep. 2011;1:93.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Quantitative assessment of malaria importation.. From: Travel risk, malaria importation and malaria transmission in Zanzibar.

Vulnerability (the number of imported malaria per year per 1,000 inhabitants, δ) and receptivity (the effective reproductive number, Rc) in three different epidemiological settings in Zanzibar: (a) urban Unguja with a parasite rate of 0% (95% Confidence Interval: 0–0.2%), (b) rural Unguja with a parasite rate of 0.5% (0.3–0.9), and (c) Pemba with a parasite rate of 1.5% (1–2.1). The solid black line represents the mean annual number of imported malaria cases and the dashed black lines the upper and lower bounds of the 95% confidence interval represented by the grey area. The red dotted line represents the empirical estimation of δ in Zanzibar according to travel assessment survey, which is of 1.6 imported malaria cases per 1,000 inhabitants per year.

Arnaud Le Menach, et al. Sci Rep. 2011;1:93.

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