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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Clustered new spines form over multiple training sessions of the same, but not different, motor tasks. From: REPETITIVE MOTOR LEARNING INDUCES COORDINATED FORMATION OF CLUSTERED DENDRITIC SPINES IN VIVO.

a, Timelines of reach-only, cross-training and motor enrichment experiments. b, Repeated imaging of the same dendritic branch revealed that two neighboring new spines (arrowhead) formed between days 1 and 4 during cross-training. Scale bar, 1 μm. c, Higher percentages of new spines formed between days 1 and 4 in reach-only, cross-training and motor enrichment, compared to controls. d, Higher percentages of new spines formed in clusters between days 1 and 4 in reach-only and cross-training, compared to controls. e, A higher percentage of new spines that formed between days 1 and 4 clustered with new spines that had formed between days 0 and 1 in the reach-only condition, compared to controls. Number of mice examined: 6 control, 9 reach-only, 5 cross-training and 6 motor enrichment. **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Error bars, s.e.m.

Min Fu, et al. Nature. ;483(7387):92-95.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. The spatial distribution of new spines along dendrites. From: REPETITIVE MOTOR LEARNING INDUCES COORDINATED FORMATION OF CLUSTERED DENDRITIC SPINES IN VIVO.

a, A schematic illustrating the measurement of Dn-s. b, The median of measured Dn-ss (the red circle) is significantly larger than that of simulated Dn-ss (box plot of results from 1000 simulations, with whiskers representing the minimum and the maximum) in control mice. The simulation is based on the null hypothesis that new spines are added independently and uniformly along a linear dendrite. c, Cumulative probability distribution of measured Dn-s is shifted towards longer distances than the simulated Dn-s in control mice. d, A schematic illustrating the measurement of Dn2-s, clustered. The nearest spine to a clustered n2 could be either a persistent first new spine (n1) or a stable spine existing since day 0, depending on relative n2 location. e, Dn1-s in control mice is comparable to that of trained mice. In trained mice, Dn2-s, clustered is significantly smaller than Dn1-s, while Dn2-s, non-clustered is comparable to Dn1-s. The number of spines analyzed in each condition is indicated on each column. *P<0.05. Error bars, s.e.m.

Min Fu, et al. Nature. ;483(7387):92-95.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Acquisition of a novel motor skill induces formation of spine clusters. From: REPETITIVE MOTOR LEARNING INDUCES COORDINATED FORMATION OF CLUSTERED DENDRITIC SPINES IN VIVO.

a, Repeated imaging of the same dendritic branch during motor learning reveals that a second new spine that formed between days 1 and 4 (red arrowhead) is located next to a stabilized new spine that had formed on day 1 (blue arrowhead). Scale bar, 1 μm. b, A higher percentage of new spines formed in clusters over 4 days during early training (n=18 mice), compared to control (n=7) and late training (n=4). c, Clustered new spines observed on training day 4 have a higher survival rate than non-clustered counterparts by the end of the 16-day training (n=6), as well as 4 months after training stops (n=4). d, New spines formed on training day 1 are classified according to their fate and neighboring spine formation. e, Spine head sizes of persistent clustered new spines increase between training days 1 and 4. f, Spine head sizes of persistent non-clustered new spines show no change between training days 1 and 4. Spine head size is quantified by the normalized spine head diameter, defined as the ratio of the spine head diameter to the adjacent dendritic shaft diameter. *P<0.05, **P<0.01. Error bars, s.e.m.

Min Fu, et al. Nature. ;483(7387):92-95.

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