Results: 3

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Key A. suum monoamine receptor isoforms appear to be differentially transcribed during the major phases of larval hepato-pulmonary migration. From: Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

Relative expression is presented as reads per kilobase per million reads (statistically significant at P ≤ 0.001; see reference 20, for details).

Richard Komuniecki, et al. Mol Biochem Parasitol. ;183(1):1-7.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Exogenous serotonin (5-HT) causes an unusual “kinked” paralysis in J2s of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. From: Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

J2s were incubated for 20 min in liquid culture with 20 mM 5-HT. These high concentrations of exogenous 5-HT are necessary to overcome the relative impermeability of the nematode cuticle. However, as noted in the text, this paralysis appears to result exclusively from the actions of 5-HT on serotonergic signaling, as locomotion in C. elegans lacking key 5-HT receptors is completely unaffected by 5-HT at these concentrations. We would like to thank Julia Thissen for these unpublished pictures of H. glycines J2s.

Richard Komuniecki, et al. Mol Biochem Parasitol. ;183(1):1-7.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. The A. suum genome contains putative orthologues of most of the Caenorhabditid monoamine receptors, suggesting that the physiological roles of these receptors may be conserved and potentially characterized in the more genetically-tractable C. elegans model system. From: Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

Predicted protein sequences were aligned using ClustalW and an unrooted tree was constructed using a Neighbourhood-Joining method in MEGA5. Statistical support for tree branching was determined using bootstrap analysis with 5000 replicates. The level of bootstrap support for each branch is indicated with asterisks. A. suum sequences were based on the A. suum draft genome (20). Sequences for C. elegans, C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. remanei, B. malayi, L. loa and H. contortus were obtained from GenBank. Accession numbers for C. elegans are: Ce DOP-1: NP_001024577.1, Ce DOP-2: NP_001024048.1, Ce DOP-3: NP_001024908.2, Ce DOP-4: NP_508238.2, Ce DOP-5: NP_505884.1, Ce DOP-6: NP_508739.3, CE OCTR-1: NP_001024569.1, Ce SER-1: NP_001024728.1, Ce SER-2: NP_001024339.1, Ce SER-3: NP_491954.1, Ce SER-4: NP_497452.1, Ce SER-5: NP_492273.2, Ce SER-6: NP_741350.1, Ce SER-7: NP_741730.1, Ce TYRA-2: NP_001033537.1, Ce TYRA-3: NP_001024805.1. Species abbreviations and accession numbers are color-coded: red for parasitic species and blue for free-living species. Abbreviations: Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), Caenorhabditis brenneri (Cbr), Caenorhabditis briggsae (Cb), Caenorhabditis remanei (Cr), Ascaris suum (As), Brugia malayi (Bm), Loa loa (Ll), and Haemonchus contortus (Hc).

Richard Komuniecki, et al. Mol Biochem Parasitol. ;183(1):1-7.

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