Results: 2

1.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Immunotherapy earns its spot in the ranks of cancer therapy.

Various immune checkpoint receptors inhibit effector T cell function and boost T reg cell function. Checkpoint receptors such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and LAG-3 are expressed on activated effector T cells, but are constitutively expressed on T reg cells. In the presence of cognate ligands for these receptors, effector T cell function is diminished, whereas T reg cell function and/or proliferation are enhanced. In this figure, the strength of T cell function and/or proliferation is proportional to the size of the cell.

Drew Pardoll, et al. J Exp Med. 2012 February 13;209(2):201-209.
2.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Immunotherapy earns its spot in the ranks of cancer therapy.

Multiple immune inhibitory and co-stimulatory pathways in the tumor microenvironment are targets of therapeutic manipulation by antibodies or drugs. Cells in the tumor microenvironment express multiple inhibitory cytokines, ligands, and cognate receptors (red) that down-modulate the antitumor activity of immune effector cells including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Some of these inhibitory proteins are expressed by tumor cells themselves and others are expressed by tumor-infiltrating suppressive cells including T reg cells and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). T reg cells inhibit antitumor CTL activity by producing soluble factors such as IL-10 and TGF-β, whereas MDSCs inhibit immunity through metabolic enzymes such as IDO and arginase. These inhibitory signals are counterbalanced by signals that enhance immune activation (green), a number of which are transduced by members of the TNFR family (CD40, CD137, OX40, and CD27). Blocking antibodies or drugs are in development or clinical testing for each of the inhibitory molecules depicted in the figure, and agonist antibodies are in development or clinical testing for each of the activating TNFR family members depicted (Table 1). DC/Mφ, DCs/macrophages.

Drew Pardoll, et al. J Exp Med. 2012 February 13;209(2):201-209.

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