Results: 3

1.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake.

Modulation of TEP slope (a), TEP amplitude (b), theta power of eyes-open spontaneous EEG (c), and PVT performance (d) as a function of time spent awake. Values are mean ± standard error of the mean over subjects. Bonferroni-corrected two-tailed paired t-tests between sessions: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Red bar indicates a night of sleep deprivation and blue bar a night of recovery sleep.

Reto Huber, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2013 February;23(2):332-338.
2.
Figure 3.

Figure 3. From: Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake.

(a) Example of the trajectory of the tracker ball during a visuomotor compensatory tracking task session (subject 1) performed at 3:00 PM in the baseline afternoon (left) and in the sleep deprivation afternoon (right). Sleep deprivation was associated with transient lapses of vigilance and decreases in task performance, as shown by the higher distance of the tracker ball from the target. (b) Single-trial TEPs (amplitude is color coded) sorted according to the corresponding task error value (black curve) are shown for each subject (a moving average filter spanning 5 trials was applied for visualization purposes only). TMS pulses occur at 0 ms. The superimposed black curve shows the single-trial task error value, measured in pixels, sorted in ascending order. Task error did not correlate significantly with the amplitude and slope of TEPs in any subject.

Reto Huber, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2013 February;23(2):332-338.
3.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Human Cortical Excitability Increases with Time Awake.

(a) Schedule of the experimental protocol (adaptation night/day cycle is not shown). Black arrows indicate the daytime experimental sessions. EEG was recorded during the baseline and recovery night and during the experimental sessions while collecting resting EEG, CTT, and TEP. (b) TMS was targeted to the left frontal cortex by means of a neuronavigation system that ensured stimulation reproducibility across sessions. (c) Average EEG response to TMS in all channels (top) and instantaneous topographical maps of scalp voltages (bottom) (data from subject 1). Black traces refer to the TEPs recorded from a region of interest (ROI) around the stimulated site (AF1, AFz AF2, F5, F1, Fz, F2, FC3, FC1, FCz, FC2, C3, C1, and Cz channels highlighted in black on the topographical maps below), where TMS evoked a clear negative-to-positive deflection. After averaging the single-trial responses across the channels in the ROI (red trace), cortical excitability was measured as the slope and amplitude of the early negative-to-positive component of the evoked response (from 10 ± 1 to 20 ± 2 ms). (d) Superimposition of TEPs recorded during baseline day, sleep deprivation day, and recovery day for each subject. The measurements were carried out at the same time (3:00 PM) to control for circadian effects. (e) Superimposition of TEPs measured during baseline day, from morning session (9:00 AM) to evening session (9:00 PM) in each subject. (d,e) Black arrows indicate TMS pulses. Bar graphs illustrate average values (±standard error of the mean) of amplitude and slope. Bonferroni-corrected two-tailed paired t-tests between sessions: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, NS = not significant. Upper row: subjects 1–3, lower row: subjects 4–6. Shadows around the TEP traces indicate the standard error of the mean. In subject number 6 TEPs from the recovery night could not be analyzed due to technical artifacts.

Reto Huber, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2013 February;23(2):332-338.

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