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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Maternal immune activation by LPS selectively alters specific gene expression profiles of interneuron migration and oxidative stress in the fetus without triggering a fetal immune response.

Maternal LPS elevates cytokine levels in maternal fluids and fetal brain. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum (4 h: control n = 7; LPS n = 7 and 24 h: control n = 6; LPS n = 6), amniotic fluid (4 h: control n = 28; LPS n = 26 and 24 h: control n = 24; LPS n = 20), and fetal brain (4 h control n = 19; LPS n = 25 and 24 h: control n = 11; LPS n = 10) at 4 and 24 h post maternal LPS (0.25 mg/kg) or saline administration on gestational day 15. Immunoaffinity electrophoresis analysis of fluid and tissue samples shows that cytokine protein levels are significantly elevated across the three maternal-fetal compartments at both time-points in offspring born to LPS-treated dams. Results are expressed as means ± SEM whereby * represents comparisons between LPS and control, p < 0.05 and # represents comparisons between LPS across time, p < 0.05 (2-way between subjects MANOVA).

Devon B. Oskvig, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;26(4):623-634.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Maternal immune activation by LPS selectively alters specific gene expression profiles of interneuron migration and oxidative stress in the fetus without triggering a fetal immune response.

Postnatal social and exploration behaviors are altered in offspring born to dams maternally injected with LPS compared to saline. Dams were injected with 0.25 mg/kg LPS on gestational day 15. Offspring underwent behavioral testing on four separate testing dates beginning on postnatal day 25 and concluding on postnatal day 55. On the automated 3-chambered social preference task in which rats are given the choice to investigate a novel stimulus rat (social chamber), or a non-social, empty side (home chamber), offspring born to LPS-treated dams have reduced levels of social investigation across each testing date, reflected by their lower social index score (A), which measures the preference for investigation of the social vs. home chamber. LPS offspring also have reduced exploration as defined by number of nose-hole pokes/minute ambulation within an open field (C). These deficits are not due to overall locomotor defects or periods of immobility, which is reflected by the lack of differences in number of overall chamber (both social and home) entries (B) or ambulation in the open field (D). Results (n = 17 per group) are expressed as means ± SEM, and all comparisons are made between LPS treatment group and matched controls whereby *p < 0.05. (2-way mixed ANOVA followed by Student Newman-Keul’s post hoc test).

Devon B. Oskvig, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;26(4):623-634.

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