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Results: 4

1.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. Caffeine does not alter the MPP+-induced reductions in striatal TH, DA or DA metabolites. From: Delayed caffeine treatment prevents nigral dopamine neuron loss in a progressive rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Rats were treated as described in Fig.2. (A) Results are from the left striatum and are presented as the % of control ± SEM (naives, n=3; MPP+, n=7; simultaneous MPP+ and caffeine, n=6). Control values are (mean ± SEM in ng/mg tissue): TH, 174 ± 6; DA, 16.7 ± 0.3; DOPAC, 1.7 ± 0.1; HVA, 1.6 ± 0.1; 5HT, 0.8 ± 0.1; 5HIAA, 1.6 ± 0.1. * p<0.05 vs. respective side of controls. (B) Results are presented as % control from right sides of naïve rats or rats treated with MPP+ or MPP+ and caffeine.

Patricia K. Sonsalla, et al. Exp Neurol. ;234(2):482-487.
2.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. Continuous icv MPP+ administration produces a progressive and linear reduction in striatal DA and TH. From: Delayed caffeine treatment prevents nigral dopamine neuron loss in a progressive rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Rats received continuous MPP+ infusions (75 μg/day) into the left cerebral ventricle and were killed at 7, 14, or 28 days after starting the MPP+ infusion. DA and TH protein were measured in both the left and right striatum. Results are plotted as the ratio of DA or TH content in the left striatum to the right striatum (L/R Ratio) as a function of days of MPP+ exposure from the number of rats indicated in parenthesis. Data at time 0 are L/R ratios from naïve rats. DA and TH content in the right striata of the treatment groups did not differ significantly from right striata of naïve rats nor did they differ across the treatment groups. Linear regression analysis showed correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.98 (p<0.01) for DA and of 0.99 (p<0.01) for TH. *P<0.01 vs L/R ratio in naive rats.

Patricia K. Sonsalla, et al. Exp Neurol. ;234(2):482-487.
3.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. Caffeine protects nigral DA neurons when administered prior to or during the course of neurodegeneration initiated by MPP+. From: Delayed caffeine treatment prevents nigral dopamine neuron loss in a progressive rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Rats were infused with MPP+ (75 μg/day) for 4 wks. Caffeine in the drinking water (1 g/l) was provided from the start of the infusion, or beginning 1 or 3 weeks later. (A) Results are the mean ± SEM of TH+ cell counts in the left SN, with the number of rats indicated in the columns. Controls are naïve untreated rats. When caffeine was given along with MPP+, or delayed by 1 or 3 weeks after beginning MPP+ infusions, there was less neurodegeneration of nigral DA neurons compared to MPP+ given alone. *P<0.01 control vs. group treated with only MPP+. (B) Data are plotted from individual animals, and also show the median cell count (horizontal line) for each of the 5 treatment groups.

Patricia K. Sonsalla, et al. Exp Neurol. ;234(2):482-487.
4.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. Caffeine appears to attenuate the microglia response in the SN but not in the striatum. From: Delayed caffeine treatment prevents nigral dopamine neuron loss in a progressive rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Rats were treated as described in Fig. 2 except that caffeine treatment was started 1 week after onset of MPP+ infusion. ED1 immunostaining for microglia is red. TH+ immunostaining for DA neurons is green. (Upper panels) Representative photomicrograph from one of two rats treated with only MPP+. Left side is ipsilateral to the icv infusion. Top photmicrographs are at lower magnification. ED1 immunostained cells are prominently noted in the left side whereas few are seen in the right side. Also, note the reduction of TH+ cells in the medial region of the SN on the left side as compared to the right SN. The findings in the second rat were similar. Representative photomicrographs from one of two rats that received both caffeine and MPP+. Note that there are fewer ED1 immunostained cells in the left SN region in the MPP+ and caffeine treated rat than in the MPP+ rat. Also note the preservation of TH+ cells in the medial region of the SN as compared to MPP+ rats. Similar findings were observed in the second rat. (Lower panels) Caffeine does not attenuate the microglia response in the striatum. Areas shown are from sections at two different rostral-caudal levels from one rat; the upper photomicrographs are from near the icv cannula placement region whereas the lower photomicrographs are from sections rostral to cannula placement. Note intense ED1 staining in the left striatum of the MPP+-treated rat near the cannula placement site with much less intense staining at the more rostral site. Note absence of ED1 staining in the right striatum. Also note loss of TH staining in the left striatum vs. the right striatum. The rat treated with MPP+ and caffeine shows similar ED1 staining as in the rat treated with only MPP+, but the TH staining is somewhat more intense in this animal vs. MPP+ alone. As in the MPP+ treated rat, there is a paucity of ED1 staining in the right striatum.

Patricia K. Sonsalla, et al. Exp Neurol. ;234(2):482-487.

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