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1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors modulate both LFS- and HFS-LTD. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) HFS-LTD in 1 μM of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride. Gray traces in A and C show control HFS-LTD from for reference. In all panels, scale bars are 100 pA x 5 ms and error bars are SEM.
(B) LFS-LTD in 1 μM sulpiride. Gray traces in B and D show control LFS-LTD from for reference.
(C) HFS-LTD in 1 μM of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS21680.
(D) LFS-LTD in 1 μM CGS21680.

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. LFS-LTD requires diacylglycerol lipase, but not elevations in intracellular calcium. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) LFS-LTD in 10 μM of the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor THL. Gray traces in A, B, and C show control LFS-LTD from for reference. In all panels, scale bars are 100 pA × 5 ms and error bars are SEM.
(B) LFS-LTD with 10 μM of the intracellular calcium store depleter thapsigargin included in the intracellular solution.
(C) LFS-LTD with 10 μM of the L-type calcium channel blocker nitrendipine (white circles), and with 10 μM of the calcium chelator BAPTA (black circles) included in the intracellular solution.
(D) Schematic showing the proposed signaling pathway underlying LFS-LTD. Activation of Gq-coupled mGluRs activates PLCβ, stimulating the production of diacylglycerol (DAG), which is then converted to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL).

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. D2 and A2A receptors modulate LTD through cAMP/PKA signaling. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) HFS-LTD in 1 μM of the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and with either 500 nM of the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor ddATP (white circles) or 100 μM of the PKA inhibitor PKI (black circles) in the intracellular solution. Gray trace shows HFS-LTD in sulpiride with no drug in the intracellular solution from for reference. In all panels, scale bars are 100 pA x 5 ms and error bars are SEM.
(B) HFS-LTD in 1 μM of the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 and with either 500 nM ddATP (white circles) or 100 μM PKI (black circles) in the intracellular solution. Gray trace shows HFS-LTD in CGS21680 with no drug in the intracellular solution from for reference.
(C) HFS-LTD with 10 μM of the adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 in the intracellular recording solution. Gray traces in C and D show control HFS-LTD from .
(D) HFS-LTD with 0.5–1 mM of the PKA activator Sp-8-OH-cAMPS in the intracellular recording solution.

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. HFS-LTD depends on a distinct signaling pathway involving Src kinase, internal calcium stores, L-type calcium channels, and phospholipase D. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) HFS-LTD in 10 μM of the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor THL. Gray traces in A–E show control HFS-LTD from for reference. In all panels, scale bars are 100 pA × 5 ms and error bars are SEM.
(B) HFS-LTD with 10 μM of the intracellular calcium store depleter thapsigargin included in the intracellular solution (white circles) and with 10 μM ryanodine included in the intracellular solution to specifically block ryanodine receptors (black circles).
(C) HFS-LTD in 10 μM of the L-type calcium channel blocker nitrendipine.
(D) HFS-LTD in 10 μM of the Src-family kinase inhibitor PP2 (white circles), and with 100 μM c-Src inhibitory peptide included in the intracellular solution (black circles).
(E) HFS-LTD with 100 μM of the phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitor CAY10594 (white circles).
(F) Schematic showing the proposed signaling pathway underlying HFS-LTD. Activation of Gq-coupled mGluRs activates Src, which phosphorylates and activates L-type calcium channels and/or PLD. Calcium influx through L-type calcium channels (amplified by RyR-mediated calcium-induced calcium release from internal stores) also activates PLD. PLD activity leads to the production and release of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA).

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
5.
Figure 6

Figure 6. D2 and A2A receptors regulate striatal LTD via regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4). From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) HFS-LTD in RGS4−/− mice in control (no drug) solution (white circles) and in 1 μM of the CB1R antagonist AM251 (black circles). Interleaved HFS-LTD experiments in wildtype mice in control solution are shown as open red circles. The blue trace shows the data from HFS-LTD experiments in wildtype mice in 1 μM AM251 from for reference.
(B) HFS-LTD in RGS4−/− mice in 1 μM of the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 (white circles) and in 1 μM of the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (black circles). The solid lines show HFS-LTD in wildtype mice in 1 μM CGS21680 (blue trace) and in 1 μM sulpiride (red trace) from .
(C) HFS-LTD with 100 μM of the RGS4 inhibitor CCG-63802 included in the intracellular solution, in combination with either no drug (white circles) or with 1 μM sulpiride (black circles) in the bath.
(D) HFS-LTD in RGS4−/− mice with 25 pM recombinant RGS4 protein included in the intracellular solution and with either no drug (white circles) or with 1 μM CGS21680 (black circles) or with 1 μM sulpiride (red circles) in the bath.
(E) HFS-LTD in dopamine-depleted slices. Slices are from the treated hemisphere of mice injected unilaterally with 6-OHDA in the medial forebrain bundle. Results are shown for wildtype (white circles) and RGS4−/− mice (black circles).
(F) Schematic showing the proposed signaling pathway by which D2 and A2A receptors modulate eCB-LTD. In this model, D2 and A2A receptors oppositely modulate cAMP/PKA. High PKA activity inhibits mGluR-Gq signaling via RGS4. Inhibition of mGluR-Gq signaling prevents the mobilization of both 2-AG and AEA.

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
6.
Figure 1

Figure 1. PLCβ-dependent and -independent forms of eCB-LTD can be elicited at excitatory synapses onto striatal indirect-pathway MSNs. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) Schematic of the high-frequency stimulation (HFS)-LTD induction protocol. 100 Hz stimulation for one second was paired with postsynaptic depolarization to −10 mV. This stimulation was repeated four times at ten second intervals.
(B) HFS-LTD in control conditions (white circles) and in 1 μM of the CB1R antagonist AM251 (black circles). In this and all subsequent panels showing LTD, normalized EPSC amplitudes are plotted over time. Traces from representative experiments are shown above the graph. The thin traces show the average EPSC from 0–10 minutes, and the thick traces show the average EPSC from 30–40 minutes. For HFS-LTD, the arrowhead indicates the time of induction. In all panels, scale bars are 100 pA × 5 ms and error bars are SEM.
(C) HFS-LTD in 100 μM of the mGluR1/5 antagonist AIDA (white circles), and with 10 μM of the PLCβ inhibitor U73122 included in the intracellular pipette solution (black circles).
(D) Schematic of the low-frequency stimulation (LFS)-LTD induction protocol. 20 Hz stimulation for one second was paired with postsynaptic depolarization to −10 mV. This stimulation was repeated 30 times at ten second intervals to induce LFS-LTD.
(E) LFS-LTD in control solution (white circles) and in 5 μM AM251 (black circles). In all panels showing LFS-LTD, the dotted line indicates the time of LFS-LTD induction.
(F) LFS-LTD in 100 μM AIDA (white circles) and with 10 μM U73122 included in the intracellular solution (black circles).

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.
7.
Figure 7

Figure 7. RGS4−/− mice have fewer behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. From: RGS4 is required for dopaminergic control of striatal LTD and susceptibility to parkinsonian motor deficits.

(A) Left, example images of coronal brain slices from wildtype (WT) and RGS4−/− mice stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to verify dopamine depletion following unilateral 6-OHDA injections. Right, quantification of dopamine depletion in all WT and RGS4−/− mice used for behavioral analysis. The intensity of fluorescence on the ipsilateral side was compared to that on the contralateral side for each mouse to yield the TH ipsi:contra ratio.
(B) Examples of the paths taken by dopamine-depleted WT and RGS4−/− mice during the 10 minute test period. The example paths shown are from the same mice whose TH staining is shown in A.
(C) The distances traveled during the test period are shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=7), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=12), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=6), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10). Data from the same group of mice is also shown in D, E, and F.
(D) The percentage of time spent freezing, ambulating, or making fine movements is shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=7), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=12), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=6), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10).
(E) Average velocity during periods of ambulation is shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=7), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=12), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=6), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10).
(F) Average length of an ambulation bout (time spent continuously ambulating before stopping) is shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=7), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=12), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=6), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10).
(G) The average number of foot slips per trial on the balance beam is shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=9), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=6), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=9), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10). Data from the same group of mice is also shown H. Three additional 6-OHDA-injected WT mice were tested on the balance beam, but failed to perform the task.
(H) The average number of falls per trial on the balance beam is shown for saline-injected WT mice (n=9), 6-OHDA-injected WT mice (n=6), saline-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=9), and 6-OHDA-injected RGS4−/− mice (n=10).
*p<0.05; **p<0.01.

Talia N. Lerner, et al. Neuron. ;73(2):347-359.

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