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1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

SDS-PAGE of copper-binding proteins. (a) S. cerevisiae. Lane 1: proteins from non-evolved cells grown in YPD; lane 2: proteins from evolved cells grown in YPD; lane 3: proteins from evolved cells grown in YPD + CuSO4 2.5 g · L-1. (b) C. humilis. Lane 1: proteins from non-evolved cells grown in YPD; lane 2: proteins from evolved cells grown in YPD; lane 3: proteins from non-evolved cells grown in YPD + CuSO4 2.5 g · L-1; lane 4: proteins from evolved cells grown in YPD + CuSO4 2.5 g · L-1.

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

Growth of yeast cells in YPD + 2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4. Evolved (black cirles), non-evolved (black triangles) and de-adapted (black squares) cells of C. humilis AL5 (a), S. cerevisiae BL7 (b), S. cerevisiae EL1 (c), S. cerevisiae GL6 (d). The values reported are averages of three replicates. Calculated standard deviations are ≤ 0.6, making error bars not appreciable.

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

Intracellular copper measured during growth in YPD + 2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4. C. humilis AL5 (a); S. cerevisiae BL7 (b); S. cerevisiae EL1 (c) and S. cerevisiae GL6 (d). White bars: evolved cells; black bars: de-adapted cells; grey bars: non-evolved cells. The amount of Cu is reported as mg · g-1 biomass. Values are the average of three replicates. Note the change of scale in (a).

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

Assay of copper tolerance in yeast strains. Five μl of 1:10 serial dilutions were plated on minimal medium without or with 0.5 g · L-1 CuSO4 (a) or YPD medium containing 0-2.5 g · L-1 CuSO4 (b). Plates were incubated two days at 30°C. AL5 is the C. humilis strain; BL7, EL1 and GL6 are different S. cerevisiae strains.

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

Fluorimetric analysis of superoxide anion (OH-•) production. Evolved and non-evolved C. humilis (a) and S. cerevisiae (b) cells exponentially growing in YPD (white bars) and in YPD + 2.5 g . L-1 CuSO4 (grey bars). OH-• formation is expressed as fluorescence intensity of ethidium in arbitrary units. Data presented are the mean of at least three independent analyses.

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Laboratory evolution of copper tolerant yeast strains.

Cytofluorimetric analysis. Evolved and non-evolved C. humilis (a) and S. cerevisiae (b) cells. Cells were collected during exponential growth in YPD + 2.5 g . L-1 CuSO4 and stained with propidium iodide. The x- and y-axes of the histogram display the log fluorescence intensity (PI) and the number of collected cells (events) per sample, respectively. Propidium positive cells are on the right side of the distribution whereas viable cells are on the left side. Fluorescence distributions are representative of three replicates obtained in independent experiments. This analysis was carried out with S. cerevisiae cells despite their extreme poor growth in copper medium thanks to the very small number of cells required.

Giusy Manuela Adamo, et al. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:1-1.

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