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1.
FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 4. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

Identification of metabolites using the untargeted metabolomics approach. A, LC-MS chromatogram and MS/MS spectra for a GlyPhCh synthetic standard and GlyPhCh found in zebrafish samples. XIC, extracted ion chromatogram. B, LC-MS chromatogram and MS/MS spectra for an IMP synthetic standard and IMP found in zebrafish samples.

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.
2.
FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 2. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

PCA-DA scores plot of zebrafish fed the AA-deficient (n = 10) and AA-sufficient diet (n = 10) (DA1 × DA2, 70% of variance). Analysis is on the basis of the polar features detected in positive ion mode.

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.
3.
FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 3. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

Volcano plot of polar metabolites detected in positive ion mode in zebrafish fed an AA-deficient and AA-sufficient diet with α-T supplementation (C+E+ versus C-E+). Log 10 (fold change) values are on the basis of average (n = 5/group) responses calculated by MarkerView software.

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.
4.
FIGURE 5.

FIGURE 5. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

Relative differences in metabolite levels between zebrafish fed an AA-deficient diet and fish supplemented with AA, both groups with adequate dietary α-T (C+E+ versus C-E+). Identified metabolites were integrated using MultiQuant software and log 2 (fold change) values were calculated with harmonic means to account for small group sizes (n = 5).

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.
5.
FIGURE 6.

FIGURE 6. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

Bound and free AMPD activity in zebrafish fed an AA-deficient diet and in fish supplemented with AA, both groups with adequate dietary α-T (C+E+ versus C-E+). To account for unequal variance in the C+ and C- groups, a Welch's correction was used for Student's t test comparisons (n = 10/group). Data represent mean ± S.E.

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.
6.
FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 1. From: Vitamin C Deficiency Activates the Purine Nucleotide Cycle in Zebrafish.

α-T, AA, uric acid, and MDA concentrations in zebrafish fed experimental diets containing low AA and sufficient or insufficient α-T (C-E-/C-E+ groups), compared with fish supplemented with high AA and with sufficient or insufficient α-T (C+E-/C+E+ groups). Shown are mean ± S.E. (n = 10 per group). In each panel, bars bearing different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) with a one-way analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. A, the α-T deficient diets relative to the α-T adequate diets markedly decreased whole-body α-T concentrations (p < 0.001), and AA supplementation increased α-T concentrations in the α-T adequate group (p < 0.01). B, dietary AA altered AA concentrations (p < 0.05). C, uric acid concentrations varied with dietary antioxidants (p < 0.01). D, both dietary α-T and AA decreased zebrafish MDA concentrations (p < 0.01).

Jay S. Kirkwood, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 February 3;287(6):3833-3841.

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