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Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Conditioning on intermediates in perinatal epidemiology.

Diagram illustrating relationships between an exposure e.g. smoking (A), an intermediate e.g. low birthweight (M), an outcome e.g. infant mortality (Y) and both measured (C) and unmeasured (U) confounders.

Tyler J. VanderWeele, et al. Epidemiology. ;23(1):1-9.

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