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Results: 4

1.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Translational pathology of neoplasia.

Demonstrates how molecular analysis aids in identifying poorly differentiated malignant tumors, especially metastatic cancers, whose primary cancer is unknown. Typically the pathologist may suspect which type of tumor is the primary cancer and only a few of these molecular markers are used to confirm the initial impression.

William E. Grizzle, et al. Cancer Biomark. 2010;9(1-6):7-20.
2.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Translational pathology of neoplasia.

Demonstrates the complex interaction between a tumor, its surround and the immune system. It shows how various biomarkers may be associated with the presence of a tumor without coming directly or uniquely from a tumor. For example, PSA is produced at higher levels in the cells of normal glandular epithelia of the prostate than in cells of prostate cancer.

William E. Grizzle, et al. Cancer Biomark. 2010;9(1-6):7-20.
3.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Translational pathology of neoplasia.

In Fig. 4, note biomarkers x and y may change at site Z1 without the resolution of the area of pre-invasive neoplasia. This would correlate with an effect of the drug and not a pattern indicative of a surrogate endpoint. Similarly, areas of pre-invasive neoplasia may “move” spontaneously, with or without resolution of the extent of the PINN. In this case, there is partial resolution of the area of PINN. The movements of PINN lesions over a period of months without even partial resolution of the PINN is why the use of “controls” is so important in studies to identify responses in SEBs to drugs used in the prevention of neoplasia [51].

William E. Grizzle, et al. Cancer Biomark. 2010;9(1-6):7-20.
4.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Translational pathology of neoplasia.

Demonstrates the molecular subtyping of breast carcinoma. The abbreviations used are defined subsequently. (GATABP-3) GATA binding protein 3; (X-BBP-1) box binding protein 1; (TRF-3) trefoil factor 3; (HNF3α) hepatocyte nuclear factor – 3α; (PTP4A2) protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA member; (TRAF3) Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 3; (BAP-1) BRCA associated protein 1; (KPT5, -6 or -17) keratin 5, 6 or 17; (MTIX) metaiothionein 1x; (FABP7) fatty acid binding protein 7; (SFRP1) frizzled related protein 1; (ATF3) activating transcription factor 3; (CAV1 or 2) caveolin 1 and 2; (HGF) hepatocyte growth factor; (TGFβR2) transforming growth factor β receptor II; (ABCB1) multidrug resistance protein 1; (S100P) S100 calcium binding protein P; (FBX09) fatty acid syntase; (RALB) GTP binding protein; (RAB6A) member of RAS oncogene family; (FN1) fibronectin 1; (SDC1) syndecan 1. In the future, the complex cancer such as lung or renal carcinomas also are likely to be subdivided molecularly.

William E. Grizzle, et al. Cancer Biomark. 2010;9(1-6):7-20.

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