Display Settings:

Items per page
We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Results: 10

1.
Figure 8

Figure 8. Expression of dopamine and acetylcholine muscarinic receptors in VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) D1R mRNA expression in striatum, (b) D2R mRNA expression in striatum, (c) D2R mRNA expression in the midbrain, (d) M1 mRNA expression in striatum, (e) M2 mRNA expression in striatum, and (f) M4 mRNA expression in striatum. * p<0.05 and ** p<0.01.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Release of acetylcholine and glutamate from VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Release of [3H]ACh from striatal slices in response to depolarization with KCl (33 mM). Basal release was subtracted from stimulated release to obtain only evoked release. *** p<0.001. (b) Release of [3H]ACh from hippocampal slices performed as in (a). (c) Release of glutamate from striatal isolated nerve terminals and (d) expression of VGLUT 3 in the striatum. N = 5.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. D2-Cre drives the expression of Cre in striatal cholinergic neurons.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Expression pattern of Cre detected by staining for YFP in the brain of D2-Cre;Rosa26-YFP mice. (b) Sections from different regions of the central nervous system were immunostained for CHT1 (Red) and YFP (Green) in D2-Cre;Rosa26-YFP mice. Arrows show localization of Cre expression (YFP) in cholinergic neurons (CHT1 staining). Arrowheads show cholinergic neurons that do not express Cre. For additional brain regions, see Figure S1 and Table S1.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
4.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Cocaine-mediated locomotor activity in VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Mice were injected with 5 mg/kg of cocaine after 20 min in the open-field and horizontal locomotor activity was measured. (b) Locomotor activity before and after injection of 20 mg/kg of cocaine. As with 5 mg/kg the mice were injected with cocaine after 20 min in the open-field. (c) Total locomotion during the 20 min following cocaine injection. ** p<0.01. Injection of saline did not change locomotor activity for either genotype (unpublished data). For 5 mg/kg N = 7 for control and 9 for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox. For 20 mg/kg N = 10 for control and 15 for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice. For 40 mg/kg N = 8.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
5.
Figure 7

Figure 7. Behavioural sensitization to cocaine.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Repeated cocaine injections (10 mg/kg) promoted a progressive increase of locomotor sensitization (repeated measures ANOVAs show a significant effect of treatment, F(1,16) = 33.855, p<0.001). VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice clearly manifested an enhancement in the locomotor activity in comparison with their control subjects (repeated measures ANOVAs show a significant effect of genotype, F(1,16) = 4.902, * p<0.05). (b) Cumulative 20 min locomotion after cocaine injection (10 mg/kg) of VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice and controls (*** p<0.001, day 6 versus day 1). Day 0 is the basal activity of the animals (no cocaine was injected).

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Locomotor activity of VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Horizontal locomotor activity in an open-field for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox (N = 24) and control mice (N = 27). (b) Cumulative 2 h locomotion VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox (N = 24) and control mice (N = 27) (c) dark cycle activity of VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox (N = 16) and control mice (N = 15). (d) Total locomotion activity during the first initial hours of the dark-cycle. (e) Habituation in the open-field measured as cumulative 2 h locomotion for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox and control mice in 3 consecutive days. ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 compared to the first day. VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox N = 10; control mice N = 21.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
7.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Expression of VAChT in the striatum of VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a)VAChT mRNA expression, (b) ChAT mRNA expression, (c) CHT1 mRNA expression, (d) VAChT protein expression, (e) ChaT protein expression, (f) CHT1 protein expression, (g) representative immunoblot of control and VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox striatal tissue, (h) VAChT protein expression in the hippocampus, and (i) representative immunoblot of protein expression in the hippocampus. ** p<0.01 *** p<0.001. mRNA expression levels were quantified by qPCR using actin to normalize the data, and figures represent N = 5 mice. Protein levels were quantified using synaptophysin as a loading control. N = 5 mice. See Figure S2 for VAChT levels in the spinal cord.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
8.
Figure 10

Figure 10. Effect of D1R or D2R agonists on locomotor activity in VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Effect of injection of SFK 81297 (3 mg/kg) 20 min after the mice were introduced to the open field, (b) dose-response for SKF 81297, (c) effect of quinpirole (0.01 mg/kg) as in (a), and (d) dose response for quinpirole. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, and *** p<0.001. N = 10 and 13 for saline, SKF 81297 N = 7 and 5 for 0.5 mg/kg, N = 9 and 4 for 3 mg/kg, and N = 7 and 9 for 8 mg/kg. For quinpirole N = 7 and 13 for 0.005 mg/kg, N = 17 and 15 for 0.01 mg/kg, N = 11 and 12 for 0.1 mg/kg, and N = 11 and 13 for 6 mg/kg for control and VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice, respectively.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
9.
Figure 6

Figure 6. CPP response of VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) In the conditioning phase (days 2–7) mice received alternating injections of 20 mg/kg of cocaine or vehicle and were immediately confined into one of the two conditioning chambers for 30 min. The CPP response was measured on day 8, when the animals were allowed to move freely in the CPP apparatus and the time spent in each compartment was measured (N = 6). (b) Reinstatement to cocaine was tested after extinction of CPP by pairing of the cocaine paired chamber with saline injections. Once the extinction was acquired, a prime of 10 mg/kg of cocaine was injected and the animals re-exposed to the CPP apparatus. The time spent in each compartment was measured (N = 5). * p<0.05, reinstatement versus extinction. *** p<0.001, cocaine paired versus saline paired.

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.
10.
Figure 9

Figure 9. Increased dopamine receptor expression and activity in VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice.. From: Elimination of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter in the Striatum Reveals Regulation of Behaviour by Cholinergic-Glutamatergic Co-Transmission.

(a) Striatal D2R protein levels inVAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice and controls (n = 8). * p<0.05. (b) D2R representative immunoblot blot. (c) Axial MRI FLASH image (500 μm thick) through the striatum (outlined region 1) and cerebral cortex (outlined region 2). (d) Average BOLD signal change in the striatum relative to cerebral cortex prior to and following injection of SFK 81297 at time zero (black arrow). Signal response for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice (N = 5) is shown with black triangles, and response for control mice (N = 4) is shown with open squares. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. (e) Area under the curve for VAChTD2-Cre-flox/flox mice (N = 5) is shown with black triangles, and response for control mice (N = 4) is shown with open squares. The difference between genotypes was statistically significant (p<0.01).

Monica S. Guzman, et al. PLoS Biol. 2011 November;9(11):e1001194.

Display Settings:

Items per page

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Write to the Help Desk