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Results: 4

1.
FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 4. From: High Temperature Requirement Factor A1 (HTRA1) Gene Regulates Angiogenesis through Transforming Growth Factor-? Family Member Growth Differentiation Factor 6.

Increased SMAD phosphorylation in brain tissue of htra1−/− mice. A representative Western blot shows relative levels of SMAD1 and phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8 signal in wild-type and htra1−/− mice. Mean ratios of the levels of phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8 (pSMAD 1/5/8) and SMAD1 were determined, and shown as fold-increase normalized against the ratio of the wild-type. Error bars represent S.E. n = 3 for wild-type and n = 3 for htra1−/− mice.

Li Zhang, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 January 6;287(2):1520-1526.
2.
FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 1. From: High Temperature Requirement Factor A1 (HTRA1) Gene Regulates Angiogenesis through Transforming Growth Factor-? Family Member Growth Differentiation Factor 6.

Gene expression pattern of GDF6 and HTRA1 from human lymphocytes stratified by their (A) GDF6 (rs6982567 A/G) or (B) HTRA1 (rs10490924 T/G) genotypes. Relative mRNA levels were calculated by normalizing with GAPDH and presented as relative levels to protective genotypes. Error bars represent S.E. For GDF6 (rs6982567), n = 5 for GG genotype and n = 4 for AA genotype. For HTRA1 (rs10490924), n = 4 for both GG and TT genotypes.

Li Zhang, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 January 6;287(2):1520-1526.
3.
FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 3. From: High Temperature Requirement Factor A1 (HTRA1) Gene Regulates Angiogenesis through Transforming Growth Factor-? Family Member Growth Differentiation Factor 6.

Expression of gdf6 and other AMD-related genes in mouse. A, immunohistochemical staining of GDF6 in wild-type mouse retina. GCL, ganglion cell layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; ONL, outer nuclear layer; OS, outer segment. Quantitative-PCR analysis was performed for gdf6, htra1, and vegf in RPE layer (B), retinal tissue (C), and brain tissue (D) from the wild-type and htra1−/− mice. Relative mRNA levels were calculated by normalizing results with gapdh and presented as relative levels to wild-type tissue. Error bars represent S.E. n = 6 for wild-type and n = 7 for htra1−/− mice.

Li Zhang, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 January 6;287(2):1520-1526.
4.
FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 2. From: High Temperature Requirement Factor A1 (HTRA1) Gene Regulates Angiogenesis through Transforming Growth Factor-? Family Member Growth Differentiation Factor 6.

Retinal vasculature development in mature and developing wild-type (C57BL/6) and htra1−/− mice. A, histology images of retinal blood vessels in 1-month-old mice visualized by a scanning laser confocal microscope after FITC-isolectin staining. Pictures for different layers of blood vessel, including nerve fiber layer (NFL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were taken at the same distance from the optic head in each quadrant. B, retinal vessel density in NFL, IPL and OPL from 1-month-old htra1−/− and wild-type mice. C, histology images of retinal blood vessels in 7-day-old mice visualized under a fluorescence microscope after FITC-isolectin staining. D, retinal vessel density in 7-day-old htra1−/− and wild-type mice. For 7-day-old mice, vessel density was examined for the whole retina due to the lack of defined vascular sublayers. Data were expressed as mean values. Error bars represent S.E. n = 5 for 1-month-old and n = 8 for 7-day-old mice.

Li Zhang, et al. J Biol Chem. 2012 January 6;287(2):1520-1526.

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