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Results: 5

1.
Figure 2a

Figure 2a. From: Excess Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults.

Illustration of interaction between age and smoking with no adjustment for covariates. Parameter estimates from Model 1 of Table 5 were used to calculate predicted proportions of TMD cases within this sample of 299 people in Chapel Hill, USA.P-value for interaction=0.039)

Anne E. Sanders, et al. J Pain. ;13(1):21-31.
2.
Figure 2b

Figure 2b. From: Excess Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults.

Illustration of interaction between age and smoking with adjustment for covariates shown in Model 4 of Table 5: sum of allergies, Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 concentrations, perceived psychological stress, trait anxiety and lifetime history of antidepressant medication usage. Parameter estimates from Model 5 of Table 5 were used to calculate predicted proportions of TMD cases within this case-control sample of 299 people in Chapel Hill, USA. (P-value for interaction=0.118)

Anne E. Sanders, et al. J Pain. ;13(1):21-31.
3.
Figure 3a

Figure 3a. From: Excess Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults.

Relationship between smoking status and facial pain across age strata among females living in the United States. Prevalence is the percentage of subjects who answered affirmatively to the question, “During the past three months, did you have facial ache or pain in the jaw muscles or the joint in front of the ear?” Data are nationally representative estimates for female participants aged 18 years and older in the National Health Interview Survey 2007-2009 (n=40,337). P value for the age*smoking interaction <0.001

Anne E. Sanders, et al. J Pain. ;13(1):21-31.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Excess Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults.

Directed acyclic graph depicting the pathway between smoking and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in young (aged <30 years) and older adults defined as psychologically vulnerable (on the basis of psychological stress and trait anxiety scores and a history of antidepressant medication usage).
The solid black line represents the proposed pathway for young adults. It passes through tobacco smoking to inflammation (cytokines IL-1Ra and MCP-1) and allergy (self-report of skin rashes, sinus trouble, allergies or hives, antihistamine use). The dashed gray line represents the causal pathway for older adults, which bypasses smoking. The graph assumes no unmeasured confounders given control for measured variables.

Anne E. Sanders, et al. J Pain. ;13(1):21-31.
5.
Figure 3b

Figure 3b. From: Excess Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder Associated with Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults.

Relationship between smoking status and orofacial pain symptoms across age strata among females living in Australia. Prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms was assessed in a self-administered questionnaire with seven screening questions. Three questions asked about pain in the jaws, jaw joint or pre-auricular region and four questions addressed jaw function disturbance such as difficulty opening the mouth wide and freely. The case definition used in this study required one or more affirmative response to the three pain questions and at least one affirmative response to the four jaw function disturbance questions. Data are nationally representative estimates for females in the National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006 (n=2,461). P value for the age*smoking interaction = 0.8109

Anne E. Sanders, et al. J Pain. ;13(1):21-31.

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