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Results: 5

1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Oral treatment with GABA improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice.. From: Oral Treatment with ?-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and given plain water or water containing 2 mg/ml of GABA for 20 weeks. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (IPGT), and insulin sensitivity of individual mice were tested longitudinally, as described in the Materials and Methods. Data are expressed as mean values of the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (A), the AUC of IPGT (B), and the percentages of blood glucose changes following insulin challenge (C) in different groups of mice (n = 20 for each group). *p< 0.05; ** p<0.01 vs. the GABA-fed mice.

Jide Tian, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25338.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Oral treatment with GABA does not alter the amounts of water and food consumed, but reduces the gain of body weights in the HFD-fed mice.. From: Oral Treatment with ?-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and provided with plain water or water containing 2 mg/ml of GABA for 20 weeks. The amounts of water and food consumed by individual mice and their body weights were measured longitudinally. Data are expressed as mean values of water and food consumed by individual mice per day and mean values of body weights of each group of mice (n = 20 per group) at the indicated time points post-HFD. Intragroup variations were less than 10% for the amounts of water and food consumption and less than 15% for the values of body weights. (A) The amounts of water consumed; (B) The amounts of food consumed; and (C) The body weights. *p< 0.05; ** p<0.01 vs. the GABA-fed mice.

Jide Tian, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25338.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. Oral treatment with GABA increases the frequency of splenic Tregs in vivo.. From: Oral Treatment with ?-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

C57BL/6 mice were fed with plain water or water containing GABA (2mg/ml) for four weeks. Their splenic mononuclear cells were prepared and treated with anti-CD16/32. Subsequently, splenic mononuclear cells (106/tube) were stained in duplicate with FITC-anti-CD4 and after washing, the cells were fixed, permeabilized and stained with PE-anti-Foxp3, followed by flow cytometry analysis. The cells were stained with single fluorescent-labeled antibodies or with isotype-matched IgG as controls. Data are representative charts and expressed as mean ± SEM of the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in splenic CD4+ T cells of different groups of mice (n = 3–4 mice per group) from two separate experiments. *p<0.01 vs. the water-fed mice.

Jide Tian, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25338.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Oral treatment with GABA improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice after the onset of obesity and T2DM.. From: Oral Treatment with ?-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD for 20 weeks and their fasting blood glucose and IPTG were measured. Individual mice with body weight >48g, fasting glucose level of >145 mg/dL and abnormal IPTG (blood glucose >220 mg/dL at 2 hours post-IPGT) were considered to have obesity and T2DM, and randomly treated orally with plain water (control) or water containing 2 mg/ml of GABA for another 12 weeks. Their body weights, fasting glucose concentrations, IPGT and insulin sensitivity were measured longitudinally. (A) The body weights; (B) The concentrations of fasting blood glucose; (C) The dynamic changes following glucose challenge; and (D) The percentages of blood glucose concentrations following insulin challenge. Data are expressed as mean values of each group (n = 4 per group) at the indicated time points and the concentrations of blood glucose before insulin challenge in individual mice were used as 100%. *p< 0.05; ** p<0.01 vs. the GABA-fed mice.

Jide Tian, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25338.
5.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Oral treatment with GABA reduces adipocyte mass and macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice.. From: Oral Treatment with ?-Aminobutyric Acid Improves Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity by Inhibiting Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD and provided with plain water or water containing 2 mg/ml of GABA for 20 weeks. The mice were sacrificed and the amounts of VAT in individual mice were measured. One portion of the VAT was fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 24 hours and the VAT sections at 5 µm were stained with Toluidine blue O, followed by examination under a light microscope. The sizes of adipocytes in 5 sections of individual mice from each group (n = 8) were examined in a blinded fashion. Another portion of VAT was fixed with the Bouin buffer for 48 hours and the VAT sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry analysis of infiltrated macrophages using anti-F4/80 antibodies and DAB substrate (brown), and the percentages of macrophages in 400 nuclear cells from 5 sections of each mouse in individual groups of mice were quantified in a blinded manner. Data are representative images of the adipocytes, macrophages stained and expressed as mean ± SEM from each group of mice (n = 8 for immunohistological examination and n = 12 for measuring the amounts of VAT per group). *p< 0.05; ** p<0.01 vs. the GABA-fed mice.

Jide Tian, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25338.

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