Results: 5

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Human Norovirus Infection of Caco-2 Cells Grown as a 3-Dimensional Tissue Structure.

Immune electron microscopy of cell lysates from GI.1 hNoV infected 3-D Caco-2 cells (A) Failure of localization of secondary antibody when primary antibodies were omitted. (B) Localization of 6 nm gold secondary antibodies (arrows) when infectious samples received both primary and secondary antibody.

Timothy M. Straub, et al. J Water Health. ;9(2):225-240.
2.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Human Norovirus Infection of Caco-2 Cells Grown as a 3-Dimensional Tissue Structure.

Observational phenotypes of Caco-2 cells grown in 75 cm2 flasks (A and B) and as dynamic 3 – dimensional cell cultures (C and D). Cells shown in A and C are from Washington State University, and cells shown in B and D were purchased directly from ATCC. Bar = 250 microns.

Timothy M. Straub, et al. J Water Health. ;9(2):225-240.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Human Norovirus Infection of Caco-2 Cells Grown as a 3-Dimensional Tissue Structure.

Transmission electron micrographs comparing stool sample challenges of the 3-D Caco-2 cells using 4-1 (negative) and 4-3 (hNoV positive) stool samples. The left column of photos (A, C, E, and G at1-hr, 24-hrs, 48 hrs, and 72-hrs post-challenge, respectively) show the course of a challenge using 4-1, and the right column of photos (B, D, F, and H at1-hr, 24-hrs, 48 hrs, and 72-hrs post-challenge, respectively) show the course of a challenge using 4-3. Note the presence of microvilli on all cells challenged with hNoV negative stool sample (left column of photos) and the presence of tight junctions (C). In (H), a relatively healthy cell with microvilli is adjacent to cells that are presumably infected with hNoV.

Timothy M. Straub, et al. J Water Health. ;9(2):225-240.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Human Norovirus Infection of Caco-2 Cells Grown as a 3-Dimensional Tissue Structure.

Logarithmic amplification plot of a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR experiment comparing hNoV infected Caco-2 cells with standards. For clarity only the 107 and 106 copy standards are displayed. The data for the infected cells is presented in Table 4. Note that the slopes of the samples vs. standards are similar in the exponential phase of amplification. This indicates that the samples had little to no PCR inhibition throughout the time course of the experiment. For all experiments, threshold for positive amplification was ΔRN = 0.1, and baseline was set between 3 and 15 PCR cycles.

Timothy M. Straub, et al. J Water Health. ;9(2):225-240.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Human Norovirus Infection of Caco-2 Cells Grown as a 3-Dimensional Tissue Structure.

Lack of gross pathology observed in NoV infected 3-D Caco-2 cells. Observations of the 3-D tissue aggregates under an inverted microscope showed little if any, indication of infection by hNoV. Samples 4-1 and 4-3 were stool samples from the same patient harvested pre (4-1) and post (4-3) infection with GI.1 hNoV from a previous human challenge trial. The left column of photos (A, C, E, G at 1, 24, 48, and 72 hrs post-challenge, respectively) show the course of challenge using 4-1), and the right column of photos (B, D, F, and H at1, 24, 48, and 72-hrs post-challenge, respectively) show the course of a challenge using 4-3. While (H, arrow) showed preliminary signs of infection, it was the exception rather than the rule and similar examples could be observed in uninfected controls at 72 hrs post challenge.

Timothy M. Straub, et al. J Water Health. ;9(2):225-240.

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