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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. TRIM79α interacts with LGTV NS5. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Confocal microscopy of 293 cells expressing TRIM79α-GFP (green) and LGTV proteins NS5, C or NS4A (red). (B) Co-IP of lysates from 293 cells expressing TRIM79α-GFP or TRIM30α-GFP with or without LGTV NS5-V5. Reciprocal IPs were performed using α-V5 or α-GFP antibodies. M, mock transfected. (C) Co-IP of NS5 from 293 cells transfected with plasmids expressing TRIM79α-GFP or GFP and infected with LGTV for 48 h. The IP was performed with IgY or α-NS5. IP and total protein (input) blots were probed with TBEV (NS5), GFP (TRIM79α), or β-actin specific antibodies. A molecular weight marker is indicated in kDa.

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
2.
Figure 6

Figure 6. TRIM79α specifically interacts with NS5 from tick-borne flaviviruses and restricts TBEV replication. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Confocal microscopy of 293 cells expressing TRIM79α-GFP (green) and NS5 derived from LGTV, TBEV, WNV or JEV (red). (B) Co-AP of TRIM79α-AP/V5 from 293 cells transfected with TRIM79α-V5/AP and indicated flavivirus NS5-V5 plasmids. Blots were probed with α-V5 and TRIM79α-AP/V5 and NS5-V5 were differentiated by mobility. (C–D) Quantification of virus replication by immunofocus assay in clonal 293/TRIM79α-GFP or 293/GFP cells infected with WNV NY99 (C) or TBEV Sofjin (D) at an MOI of 10 FFU/cell for indicated times (h). Data are representative of three independent experiments performed in triplicate and plotted as mean +/− SEM. Asterisks indicate P<0.05 (*) or P<0.01 (**).

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
3.
Figure 7

Figure 7. TRIM79α expression is required for the antiviral effects of IFN-β on TBEV replication. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) TRIM79α and TRIM30α mRNA expression measured by RT-qPCR in RAW cells transduced with TRIM79α or GFP shRNA lentiviruses, treated with IFN-β (100 IU/ml) and normalized to HPRT mRNA. mRNA expression levels are relative to IFN-β-treated RAW/GFPsh cells. (B–C) Titration of infectious LGTV (B) or TBEV Sofjin (C) particles in supernatants from RAW cells transduced with TRIM79α or GFP shRNA lentiviruses, and either mock treated or treated with IFN-β (100 IU/ml) at 6 hpi. Virus production was measured by immunofocus assay at 48 hpi. Data are the average of three (LGTV) or two (TBEV Sofjin) independent experiments performed in triplicate and plotted as mean +/− SEM. Asterisks indicate P≤0.05 (*), P<0.01 (**) and nonsignificant (ns).

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. TRIM79α protein turnover is regulated by proteasomal degradation. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells transfected with TRIM79α-GFP or GFP plasmids and treated with CHX (100 μg/ml) for indicated times (h). TRIM79α-GFP blots were quantitated, normalized to β– actin, and presented as proportion of TRIM79α remaining over time. Error bars represent mean +/− SEM from three experiments. (B) Ubiquitination assay for Ub-modified TRIM79α. TRIM79α was affinity purified from lysates of 293 cells expressing TRIM79α-V5/AP, with or without HA-Ub or HA-SUMO1, and treated with DMSO or MG132 (10 μM) for 4 h. Conjugation of Ub or SUMO1 was visualized by probing blots with α-HA antibody. Western blot of input is shown to demonstrate expression levels of HA-Ub, SUMO1 and TRIM79α. M, mock transfected.

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. TRIM79α is an ISG expressed during virus infection. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Schematic representations of yeast two-hybrid bait derived from LGTV NS5 (i) and prey cDNA of TRIM79α (ii) identified from a murine macrophage library. (iii) Diagram of the TRIM79α promoter region with putative transcription factor binding sites. (B) TRIM79α mRNA expression in C57BL/6 mouse tissues assessed by RT-qPCR. SC, spinal cord; LN, lymph node; BM, bone marrow. Samples are expressed relative to TRIM79α mRNA level in the skin. (C) TRIM79α mRNA expression in RAW macrophages measured by RT-qPCR at indicated times and graphed as fold induction relative to untreated control. Stimuli: IFN-β (100 IU/ml), white bar; LGTV (MOI 10), black bar; UV-irradiated LGTV (MOI 10), grey bar. (D) TRIM79α mRNA expression measured by RT-qPCR in WT and IFNAR −/− DCs infected with LGTV (MOI 25), graphed as fold induction relative to untreated control. (E) TRIM79α mRNA expression measured by RT-qPCR in mouse cells (L929 and RAW) following SeV infection (200 HA units/ml), graphed as fold induction relative to untreated control. See also .

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. TRIM79α expression restricts LGTV replication. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Confocal microscopy of 293/TRIM79α-GFP or 293/GFP cells (green) infected with LGTV (24 hpi, MOI 0.1) and immunostained for NS3 (red). White box designates area shown in inset. (B) Western blot analysis of lysates from clonal 293/TRIM79α-GFP or 293/GFP cells infected with LGTV (MOI 10) for indicated times (h). Blots were probed with antibodies specific to LGTV NS5, NS3 and E proteins, as well as TRIM79α (GFP) and actin. (C) Titration of LGTV infectious particles in supernatants from clonal 293/TRIM79α-GFP and 293/GFP cells infected with LGTV (MOI 10) for indicated times (h,solid lines/left y-axis). Data are representative of mgultiple independent experiments performed in triplicate and plotted as mean +/− SEM. Asterisks indicate P<0.05 (*). These data are also presented as the percent replication of LGTV in 293/TRIM79α-GFP cells observed in three independent experiments plotted relative to 293/GFP control cells. IFN-β protein in supernatants from infected cells quantitated by ELISA is represented by dotted lines (right y-axis). (D) Western blot analysis of NS5 and TRIM79α expression in clonal 293/GFP cells (G) and 293/TRIM79α-GFP (T) infected with LGTV (MOI 0.1) for 48 h. Cells were treated at 2 hpi with DMSO, MG132 (0.1 μM), lactacystin (0.1 μM), NH4Cl (20 mM), or 3-MA (1 mM) supplemented media. LGTV infectious particles in supernatants from these experiments were titrated by immunofocus assay and presented as percent replication relative to 293/GFP control cells. Data are representative of two independent experiments performed in triplicate and plotted as mean +/− SEM. Asterisks indicate P<0.05 (*) or P<0.01 (**).

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.
7.
Figure 4

Figure 4. TRIM79α facilitates proteasome-independent degradation of NS5. From: TRIM79α, an interferon-stimulated gene product, restricts tick-borne encephalitis virus replication by degrading the viral RNA polymerase.

(A) Western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells transfected with a constant amount of either LGTV NS5 or TRIM79α-GFP plasmid and increasing amounts of the reciprocal plasmid. GFP vector plasmid was used to ensure equal DNA transfections. Quantitation of NS5 or TRIM79α expression normalized to actin is presented below western blots as percent remaining. (B) Western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells transfected with a constant amount of LGTV NS5 and increasing amounts of TRIM79α-GFP plasmid. Cells were treated with DMSO, MG132 (10 μM) or NH4Cl (20 mM) for 4 h. Quantitation of NS5 expression was normalized to actin and presented as percent remaining. (C) Ubiquitination assay and western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells expressing LGTV NS5-V5/AP and HA-Ub with TRIM79α-GFP or GFP. Cells were treated with DMSO or MG132 for 4 h. (D) Western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells expressing LGTV NS5-V5 with TRIM79α-GFP or GFP and HA-Ub (WT) or HA-Ub-K0 (K0). (E) Confocal microscopy of 293 cells expressing LGTV NS5 (red) and/or TRIM79α-GFP (green) and immunostained for endogenous LAMP1 (grey). Nuclei are counterstained with DAPI (blue). White box designates area shown in inset. (F) Western blot analysis of lysates from 293 cells stably expressing TRIM79α-GFP or GFP alone, and transfected with indicated combinations of LGTV NS5-V5 or NS2B/3-mCherry plasmids. (G) Co-IP of TRIM79α-GFP (using α-GFP antibody) from 293 cells expressingTRIM79α-GFP or GFP alone and infected with LGTV (MOI 5) for 48 h. Cells were treated with NH4Cl (20 mM) for 12 h prior to harvest to routinely detect NS3. IP and total protein (input) blots were probed with TBEV (NS5), NS3, GFP or β-actin specific antibodies. See also .

R. Travis Taylor, et al. Cell Host Microbe. ;10(3):185-196.

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