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Results: 4

1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Schematic representation of His-Asp phosphorelays in Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310.. From: The Cyst-Dividing Bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 Genome Reveals a Well-Stocked Toolbox for Adaptation to a Desert Environment.

Note: (i) a convergent signalling network due to the higher proportion of histidines kinases (HKs) (82) versus response regulators (RRs) (49); (ii) an intracellular network of signal transduction since half of the HKs (42) are soluble and appear to detect intracellular signals, (iii) the involvement of many two-component system (TCS) (20 CheY-like RRs) in post-transcriptional regulation that likely allow a more rapid adaptation compared to transcriptional regulation (light green dotted arrows indicate possible phosphorylations), and (iv) two chemotaxis systems dedicated to a form of gliding motility.

Gilles De Luca, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23784.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Modelling of Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 cell cycle on nutritive agar based on optical and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM).. From: The Cyst-Dividing Bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 Genome Reveals a Well-Stocked Toolbox for Adaptation to a Desert Environment.

The life cycle includes the “cyst-to-cyst” division step (“cyst-cyst” division) and the “cyst-to-rod” division step plus the reversion from “rod-to-cyst” component of the cycle (“cyst-rod-cyst” differentiation). The “rod-to-rod” division step (“rod-rod” division, Video S1 and Text S1) was included as a step of the “cyst-rod-cyst” differentiation. It should be noted that the complex “cyst-to-rod” division step (Video S1; [4]; see [6] for details) occurs at the periphery of the colony [5]. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) lysis and cytoplasmic modifications during “cyst-to-rod” division step was depicted according to TEM, which showed that, prior to division and transition into rods, cysts contained condensed cytoplasmic material. These results suggested that the morphological transition occurs solely by the reshaping of cells [6].

Gilles De Luca, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23784.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Schematic representation of predicted KaiC genetic organization compared to cyanobacterial KaiABC-SasA «clock system».. From: The Cyst-Dividing Bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 Genome Reveals a Well-Stocked Toolbox for Adaptation to a Desert Environment.

(SasA is found isolated in Cyanobacteria genomes). This representation is based on the phylogeny of predicted KaiC according to TULIP tree (Fig. S6). The first clustering corresponds to colour and KaiC-context group name (1rst, 2nd, 3rd) according to the text and exhibits nature of the phosphorylation sites (ST, SS, SY, TY etc…). KaiC proteins (red colour) have been named according to their encoding gene position in database. KaiC neighbouring proteins were represented according to their proteic domain contents: HK, histidine kinase domain constituted of a HisKA and an HATPase_c domains; REC, single domain receiver protein; PAS, PAS domain; PAC, PAC domain; GAF, GAF domain; GGDEF/EAL, GGDEF and EAL domains. For HK, the N-terminal, PAS, PAC or GAF domains have been replaced by blue-light colour (for details see Fig. S6). Nt_HK: HK with a N-terminal «orange» domain exhibiting similarities with cyanobacterial KaiB protein and kaiB-like N-terminal KaiC-interacting sensory HK SasA. Genes are not drawn on scale.

Gilles De Luca, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23784.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Schematic representation of envelope transport systems in Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310.. From: The Cyst-Dividing Bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 Genome Reveals a Well-Stocked Toolbox for Adaptation to a Desert Environment.

In addition to general export pathway (Sec and Tat systems), the strain TTB310 genome encodes one type I secretion system potentially involved in secretion of a large protein, which is a putative adhesin (Rta_27720) as found in Pseudomonas fluorescens [76], and two type II secretion systems (T2SS) potentially involved in secretion of putative hydrolase implicated in EPS remodelling. The T2SSs clusters (gspFGHIJKLMCDE or gspDHEFG), each encodes an ATPase (GspE), a secretin (GspD) and a major pseudopilin (GspG), though they contain only one copy of the gspAB genes. One type IV pili machinery with different pilins and three PilB paralogs is present in strain TTB310 and is potentially involved in gliding motility. There is only one gene (pilD/gspO) encoding a prepilin peptidase involved in the maturation of both type II secretion system and type IV pili machinery. The strain TTB310 type III secretion system (T3SS) may be an additional example of the presence of T3SS genes in a nonpathogenic bacterium [29]. It could be involved in the secretion of chitinases through the thick extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of cyst-cells.

Gilles De Luca, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e23784.

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