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1.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis alters thermoregulation of rats. Depicted are changes in brain temperature of rats during baseline (thin line) and during 4 days after abdominal surgery (thick line). Data were obtained from control rats (SHAM) and septic rats (CLP). Data are presented in 10-min intervals as means ± SE. Statistical evaluations were performed on consecutive 6-h time blocks. Statistical significance across time blocks is indicated as *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01. The black bars on the x-axis indicate the dark portion of the light-dark cycle.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
2.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis fragments sleep of rats. The number of transitions from one behavioral state to another were determined hourly from control rats (SHAM, ●) and septic rats (CLP, ■) during presurgical baseline recordings (open symbols) and during postsurgical recording days (solid symbols). Data are presented as means ± SE. Statistical evaluations were performed on consecutive 6-h time blocks. Statistically significant differences between baseline and postsurgical values across time blocks are indicated as *P ≤ 0.05. The black bars on the x-axis indicate the dark portion of the light-dark cycle.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
3.
Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis-induced alterations in activity of the brain stem GABAergic system are apparent in these representative tissue samples taken from a control rat (SHAM surgery; A and B) and a septic rat (CLP surgery; C and D). Both animals were killed 30 h after surgery. Sections contain the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and are approximately −7.04 mm from bregma (45). A and C: ×10 magnification, whereas the boxed insets (shown enlarged in B and D) are ×60 magnification. Examples of cells stained for glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67) are indicated by black arrowheads, whereas examples of cells stained for both GAD67 and c-Fos are denoted by black arrows. Scale bars: C = 100 μm; D = 25 μm.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
4.
Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis alters activity of the brain stem GABAergic system. Presented are numbers of c-Fos+ neurons and c-Fos+/GAD67+ neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT; top), laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT; middle), and the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG; bottom) of rats after abdominal surgeries. Stereological counts were obtained from tissue in brains of rats killed at 30, 54, and 78 h after SHAM surgeries (open bars) or CLP surgeries (solid bars). Values are means ± SE from n = 4 animals per time point and condition. Statistically significant differences between groups are indicated as *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
5.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis alters the distribution of sleep and reduces the magnitude of diurnal changes in brain temperature. The proportion of time spent in wakefulness (A), NREMS (B), and REMS (C) is depicted for presurgical baseline values and for postsurgical days 2, 3, and 4. The proportionate behavior that occurs during the 12-h dark period, and the 12-h light period is shown for control rats (SHAM, open bars) and for septic rats (CLP, solid bars). Brain temperatures (D) are 12-h average temperatures during the dark period and the light period, and 36°C is arbitrarily defined as the “mid-point”. Within- and between-group statistical comparisons are presented *P ≤ 0.05 relative to control (SHAM) rats; #P ≤ 0.05 relative to presurgical baseline values.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
6.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

The changes in sleep and the EEG of rats are not due to the surgical procedure, but are a direct response to sepsis. Hourly differences between presurgical baseline values and postsurgical values were calculated and are plotted for each group relative to baseline values (depicted by the zero lines). Depicted are group differences in time spent in wakefulness (A), NREMS (B), EEG delta power (0.5–4.0 Hz) during NREMS (C), and REMS (D) for control rats (SHAM, ○) and septic rats (CLP, ●). Data are presented as means ± SE. Statistical evaluations were performed on consecutive 6-h time blocks. Statistically significant differences between groups across time blocks are indicated as *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01. The black bars on the x-axis indicate the dark portion of the light-dark cycle.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.
7.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

Sepsis alters sleep and the EEG of rats. Depicted is the percentage of recording time spent in wakefulness (A), non-rapid eye movements sleep (NREMS) (B), EEG delta power (0.5–4.0 Hz) during NREMS (C), and rapid eye movements sleep (REMS) (D). Data were obtained during presurgical baseline recordings (BL, open symbols) and during 4 days after abdominal surgeries (solid symbols) from control rats (SHAM, ●) and septic rats (CLP, ■). Data are presented as hourly means ± SE. Values for EEG delta power during NREMS were normalized and expressed as a percentage from the 24-h average baseline values, depicted by the “zero” line. Statistical evaluations were performed on consecutive 6-h time blocks. Statistically significant changes relative to baseline values across time blocks are indicated as *P ≤ 0.05; **P ≤ 0.01. The black bars on the x-axis indicate the dark portion of the light-dark cycle.

Francesca Baracchi, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 November;301(5):R1467-R1478.

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