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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Human parainfluenxa virus virion and genome organization. From: Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines.

Parainfluenza virus are enveloped viruses in the paramyxovirus family. Their single-strand negative-sense RNA genomes are approximately 15,500 nucleotides in length and encode six common proteins in the invariant order N-P-M-F-HN-L. The N, P and L proteins form the viral nucleocapsid. The M protein is involved in virion morphogenesis whereas the HN and F proteins mediate adhesion to and fusion with the host cell membrane, respectively. Each gene encodes a single major protein with the exception of the P gene, which, in addition to the P protein, encodes one or more accessory proteins, as indicated.
F: Fusion; HN: Hemagglutinin–neuraminidase; L: Large; M: Matirx; N: Nucleo; P: Phospho.

Alexander C Schmidt, et al. Expert Rev Respir Med. ;5(4):515-526.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Investigational live-attenuated parainfluenza virus vaccines currently in clinical development. From: Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines.

Mutations that were introduced into the wild-type virus genome are indicated by asterisks. For HPIV1 and HPIV2, the type and positions of amino acid substitutions are indicated. The T15C mutation is a non coding mutation in the leader sequence of HPIV2. For rHPIV3cp45 (also referred to as MEDI-560) only the position of mutations is indicated. For B/HPIV3 and B/HPIV3-RSV F, BPIV3 genes are in light purple and HPIV3 genes are in light blue. In B/HPIV3-RSV F (also referred to as MEDI-534), the HRSV (subgroup A F protein is expressed from an additional open reading frame inserted between BPIV3 N and P).
BPIV3: Bovine parainfluenza viruses; cp: Cold-passaged; HPIV: Human parainfluenza virus; HRSV: human respiratory syncytial virus; MEDI: MedImmune. LLC; N: Nucleo; P: Phospho.

Alexander C Schmidt, et al. Expert Rev Respir Med. ;5(4):515-526.

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