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Results: 6

1.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Localization of Rab3B in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. (A and B) Merged images of coronal sections of the CA1 region of the hippocampus from WT mice labeled by double immunofluorescence with antibodies to Rab3B (green) and vGluT1 (red) (A) or Rab3B (green) and GAD65 (red) (B) as markers for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively. (Scale bars: 20 μm.)

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.
2.
Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Enhanced fear extinction in Rab3B KO mice. (A) Measurement of contextual fear expressed as percentage of time spent freezing during the 2-min period before shock initiation (preexposure) and 24 h after mice were conditioned with two different shock intensities (0.5 and 0.75 mA). (B) Fear extinction expressed as percentage of freezing time relative to that 24 h after conditioning with a 0.5-mA shock (day 1). All values are mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05 (WT, n = 11; KO, n = 14).

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.
3.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Facilitation of reversal learning in Rab3B KO mice. (A) Latency to reach the hidden platform during the acquisition phase of the Morris water-maze task for WT and Rab3B KO mice. No differences in latency were observed between genotypes. Data shown are means of four trials/d. (B) Learning performance at the end of the acquisition phase (probe trial) expressed as percentage of time spent in each of the water-maze quadrants. Both WT and KO mice spent more time in the target quadrant during a single probe trial. (C) Latency to reach the platform during the reversal phase of the Morris water-maze task. Values are means of four trials/d. Rab3B-deficient mice showed faster reversal learning than their WT littermates. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. (D) Percentage of time spent in each quadrant during a single probe trial following reversal training. Animals of both genotypes spent more time in the new target quadrant, suggesting that they were able to reverse their learning of the platform location. All values are mean ± SEM. (WT, n = 9; KO, n = 13).

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.
4.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Inhibitory synaptic transmission. (A) Spontaneous mIPSCs recorded in the presence of 1 μM TTX. Example traces are shown on the left, and summary graphs of the amplitudes and frequencies are shown on the right. (B) Input/output curves analyzed by whole-cell recordings. Representative traces (averaged over three to six sweeps) for each stimulus intensity (3, 6, 10, 15, 25, and 40 V) are shown on the left, and summary graphs of the IPSC amplitudes plotted as a function of stimulus intensity are shown on the right. (C) Paired-pulse depression. Representative traces (averaged over 4–11 sweeps) for paired-pulses at 20-, 50-, 200-, 400-, and 800-ms ISIs are shown on the left, and summary graphs for PPR are shown on the right. (D) Use-dependent synaptic depression. Representative IPSCs (averaged over three to five sweeps) evoked by a 14-Hz stimulus train (25 pulses) are shown on the left, and a plot of the IPSC amplitudes (normalized to the first pulse in the train) is shown on the right. Data shown are mean ± SEM (number of cells and mice are indicated in parentheses).

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.
5.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Impaired i-LTD in Rab3B KO mice. (A) Representative IPSC traces taken before (1) and after (2) induction of i-LTD in slices from WT (+/+) and Rab3B KO (−/−) mice. (B) Summary plot of IPSC amplitudes as a function of time, normalized to 15-min baseline. i-LTD was triggered by TBS at time 0 (arrow). Data shown are mean ± SEM (number of cells and mice are indicated in parentheses). The magnitude of i-LTD was reduced significantly in Rab3B KO slices compared with WT (Student's unpaired t test, P = 0.00025). (C) i-LTD magnitude plotted for individual WT and KO experiments (*P < 0.001 by Student's unpaired t test). (D) PPRs, determined using a 100-ms ISI, before (Pre) and after (Post) i-LTD in WT (+/+) and Rab3B KO (−/−) slices. Consistent with a presynaptic locus of i-LTD expression, the PPR was increased significantly in WT mice (Student's paired t test, P = 0.00004), with Rab3B KO mice exhibiting a relatively smaller increase (P = 0.0053). Each pair of circles and the corresponding connecting line represent a single experiment; group means are indicated also.

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.
6.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Rab3B protein is required for long-term depression of hippocampal inhibitory synapses and for normal reversal learning.

Excitatory synaptic transmission in Rab3B KO mice. (A) Spontaneous mEPSCs monitored by whole-cell recordings in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the presence of TTX. Example traces are shown on top, and summary graphs of the amplitudes and frequencies are shown on the bottom. (B). Input/output curves of synaptic transmission obtained by extracellular field recordings. Representative traces (averaged over 5–10 sweeps) for each stimulus intensity (3, 6, 10, 15, 25, 40, and 60 V) are shown on top, and summary graphs of the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs plotted as a function of stimulus intensity for littermate WT (+/+) and Rab3B KO (−/−) mice are shown on the bottom. (C) Paired-pulse facilitation. Representative traces (averaged over 5–10 sweeps) for paired-pulse stimulations with interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 20, 50, 200, 400, and 800 ms are shown on top, and summary graphs for paired-pulse ratios (PPR) plotted as a function of the ISI are shown at the bottom. (D) LTP at Schaffer collateral–CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. (Upper) Representative fEPSP traces for slices from WT (+/+) and Rab3B KO (−/−) mice at the time points indicated. (Lower) The graph depicts relative synaptic strength, measured as the fEPSP slope, before and after LTP was triggered using TBS (arrow). Data shown are mean ± SEM (number of slices or cells and mice are indicated in parentheses).

Theodoros Tsetsenis, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 August 23;108(34):14300-14305.

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