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1.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Anisotropic encoding of three-dimensional space by place cells and grid cells.

Hypotheses concerning the firing patterns observed in the present experiment. (a and b) Two hypotheses about why grid fields appear vertically elongated on the pegboard. (a) The stripes could result from vertical stretching of an intrinsically hexagonal field array (shown for arrays at two different orientations) which is then sampled by the pegboard (squares). (b) The stripes could result from transection of an intrinsically columnar field array. (c) Observation of a cell with variable inter-stripe spacing favors the columnar-transection hypothesis (see text for details). (d) Schematic of the hypothesis that the repeating fields across coils represent successive transections of an intrinsically columnar firing field by the helix.

R. Hayman, et al. Nat Neurosci. ;14(9):1182-1188.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Anisotropic encoding of three-dimensional space by place cells and grid cells.

Place fields on the helix. (a) Firing patterns of 8 place cells on the track, as seen from overhead (left and middle, details as in Fig. 1b) or decomposed into firing rate histograms from individual coils (right). Data represent up- or down-going runs, but not both. Peak rates (Hz) are shown in black text for the overhead rate maps. Colour bar shows percentages of peak firing. (b) Schematic of the helical track. (c) Between-coil field correlation (median +/− quartiles) for place fields vs. dummy place fields (left) and lateral shift (median +/− quartiles) that maximised between-coil correlations for place fields and dummy place fields (right). (d) Major (long or vertical) and minor (short or horizontal) field axes (left), and aspect ratios (right), for place fields on the helix vs. the flat environments (mean +/− s.e.m.). F = Flat, Hx = Helix. (e) Distribution of place field peaks across the vertical extent of the helix. (f) Comparison of place field size for the five-coil and six-coil configurations of the track.

R. Hayman, et al. Nat Neurosci. ;14(9):1182-1188.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Anisotropic encoding of three-dimensional space by place cells and grid cells.

Grid fields on the helix. (a) Firing patterns of 8 grid cells on the helix, (details as in Fig. 3a but with spikes in red). Peak rates (Hz) are shown in black text for the overhead rate maps. Colour bar shows percentages of peak firing. (b) Grid cell coil-by-coil rate histograms, showing up-going and down-going runs separately, for 4 cells that showed significant directional modulation. (c) Between-coil field correlation (median +/− quartiles) for grid fields vs. dummy grid fields (left) and lateral shift (median +/− quartiles) that maximised between-coil correlations for grid fields and dummy grid fields (right), decomposed into up-going (. (d) Major (long or vertical) and minor (short or horizontal) field axes (left), and aspect ratios (right), for grid fields on the helix vs. the flat environments (mean +/− s.e.m.). F = Flat, Hx = Helix. (e) Distribution of grid field peaks across the vertical extent of the helix. (f) Vertical field size comparison for place vs. grid cells, showing increased tendency for grid cells to have fields that span the entire vertical extent of the helix.

R. Hayman, et al. Nat Neurosci. ;14(9):1182-1188.
4.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Anisotropic encoding of three-dimensional space by place cells and grid cells.

Grid fields on the pegboard. (a) Firing fields of 12 grid cells on the flat arenas (left plots) and on the vertical pegboard (right plots). Fields are as described in Fig. 1a except that spikes are red. In the flat environments, firing fields were multiple and arranged approximately in a hexagonal close-packed array. On the pegboard, by contrast, the fields tended to be aligned in one or more vertical stripes. Peak rates (Hz) in white text. Colour bar shows percentages of peak firing. (b) Field sizes and aspect ratios (mean +/− s.e.m.). On the pegboard, and by contrast with the place cells (Fig. 1b), the major axis increased in size whereas the minor axis did not, with a consequent increase in aspect ratio. (c) Orientation of the grid fields, illustrated as in Fig. 1c. (d) Spatial information content (mean +/− s.e.m.) as shown in Fig. 1d. (e) Percentages of firing fields having different vertical extents (specified as layer span). (f) Comparison of number of place and grid fields spanning all 5 layers vs. fewer (* = p < 0.05).

R. Hayman, et al. Nat Neurosci. ;14(9):1182-1188.
5.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Anisotropic encoding of three-dimensional space by place cells and grid cells.

Place fields on the pegboard. (a) Firing fields of 10 hippocampal place cells recorded in 60cm square horizontal environments and on the 1.2 m square vertical pegboard. Each field is shown as raw data (black traces = rat’s path, blue squares = superimposed action potentials) and as smoothed contour plots with peak rate (Hz) in white text. Colour bar shows percentages of peak firing. (b) Length (mean +/− s.e.m.) of the major (long) and minor (short) axes, and aspect ratios (mean +/− s.e.m.), of fields in the flat arenas and pegboard. F = Flat, PB = pegboard. * = p < 0.05, *** = p < 0.0001. (c) Orientations of place fields in the two environments. In the flat arenas (light blue), 90 degrees was arbitrarily aligned with one pair of arena walls. Place field orientation showed two peaks (asterisks) at 90 and 180 degrees, reflecting the tendency of place fields to align with walls. On the pegboard (dark blue), almost all fields aligned vertically (90 degrees). (d) One-dimensional spatial information content (mean +/− s.e.m.) for firing rate maps collapsed horizontally (H) or vertically (V), in either flat arenas (H and V arbitrarily chosen) or on the pegboard, showing significantly less information in the vertical dimension on the pegboard. (e) Diagram of the pegboard, showing the analysis layers (labelled according to a hypothetical cell with field peak in the central layer). (f) Percentages of firing fields having different vertical extents (specified as layer span).

R. Hayman, et al. Nat Neurosci. ;14(9):1182-1188.

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