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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Mechanical test data of a typical neo-Hookean solid. This was used to define the mechanical properties of the inter-fibrillar matrix. To define the mechanical properties of the fibrils, this set of test data was multiplied by a factor.

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Finite element model. A. A two-dimensional model of a tendon including fibroblasts (grey ellipses), collagen fibrils (black rods) and inter-fibrillar matrix (dark grey matter). B. The reduced “unit cell” model, using planes of symmetry

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
3.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

The pilot analyses. A shows the original mesh at the same scale as the results in (B) and (C). The fibrils in (B) and (C) are 10 times and 50 times as stiff as the matrix, respectively. This leads to a more distorted fibril orientation during cell contraction in C.

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
4.
Figure 10

Figure 10. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Crimp wavelength-to-contracted length ratio of models with differing stiffness of the collagen fibrils. The ratio increases with increasing fibril stiffness. The experimental tendon construct is compared with the simulations. The former has a value of 0.303, which is close to the value where the fibrils are 750x as stiff as the inter-fibrillar matrix (0.266).

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
5.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

The full analyses. A. The original mesh at the same scale as the results in (B) and (C). b. Fibrils 10x as stiff as the inter-fibrillar matrix. After contraction of the cells the fibrils arrange in a localized wavy pattern with a wavelength of 2.3 μm. C. Fibrils 100x as stiff as than the inter-fibrillar matrix. The crimp forms over the entire model, with a wavelength of 4.87 μm

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
6.
Figure 9

Figure 9. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

The full analyses. A. The original mesh at the same scale as the results in (B). B. The analysis where the fibrils are 750x as stiff as than the inter-fibrillar matrix. Here, the results are superimposed with the initial state of the model. After contraction of the cells the fibrils arrange in a wavy pattern with a wavelength of 8.57 μm

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
7.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Boundary conditions for the finite element modeling. A. In a pilot study, the top and bottom of the mesh were not permitted to move vertically. The lateral sides of the mesh were fixed in place. A displacement was applied to the wall of the fibroblasts in order to change the shape of the fibroblast from an ellipse to a circle. B. In the full analyses, the only modification to (A) was that the lateral sides of the mesh were allowed to move, simulating the contraction of the tendon

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
8.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Confocal light microscope images of cells in the tendon construct in pinned (A) and contracted (B) state. Cells under tension are longitudinal with an average length of 50 μm and width of 4 μm. After contraction the cells are more spherical with an average length of 20 μm and width of 8 μm. Five cells in each image are outlined and coloured (red) to illustrate the shape of the cells. Scale bar 100 μm

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
9.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

SEM and mechanical testing demonstrates embryonic crimp in ECMT and contracted tendon-constructs.
A. Stress-strain curve of 14d ECMT shows toe-region corresponding to straightening of crimped collagen fibril bundles.
B. Stress-strain curves of the tendon-construct demonstrate a toe-region characteristic of embryonic crimp in the released constructs but not in the pinned construct or in constructs treated with Triton X-100 before release.
C. SEM of the pinned construct (i) demonstrated straight parallel bundles of collagen fibrils. After contraction these fibril bundles show a wavy crimp structure (ii), comparable with that seen in day 14 ECMT (iii).

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.
10.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.

Tendon constructs contract and develop crimp when released from pinned anchors. The process is dependent on viable cells.
A. Tendon-construct (10 mm in length) anchored in a culture dish by pinned sutures.
B, C. Pinned construct viewed with PPLM.
D. The same construct 30 minutes after release has contracted to 3 mm length.
E, F. PPLM of the contracted construct demonstrates crimp with mean wavelength of 10.4 ± 2.8 μm.
G. Tendon construct treated with Triton solution and viewed 30 minutes after being released from the anchoring pins. The construct did not contract.
H, I. The same construct did not show a crimp structure when viewed by PPLM.
J. Day 14 ECMT has a crimp structure (mean crimp length = 11.5 ± 2.5 μm) when viewed by PPLM.
Scale bar 1 mm (B, E, H), 100 μm (C, F, I, J).

Andreas Herchenhan, et al. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 March;11(0):10.1007/s10237-011-0324-0.

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