Results: 3

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.

Effects of different valerian, valerenic acid, and isoborneol concentrations on [3H]Glutamate binding. Synaptic membranes were incubated with different concentrations of aqueous valerian extract, valerenic acid, and isoborneol in presence of 20 nM [3H]Glutamate. The maximum glutamate binding was 160% for valerian extract concentration of 0.001 mg/mL. The [3H]Glutamate displacement curves in presence of valerenic acid and isoborneol were very different from the curve in presence of valerian. Each point represents at least three independent assays.

Lisa M. Del Valle-Mojica, et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:403591.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.

Effects of valerian extracts, valerenic acid, and isoborneol on ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR). (a) Valerian extract at 0.05 mg/ml in presence of 1 mM kainic acid (KA) decreased the glutamate binding significantly. This effect was not seen with NMDA or AMPA. High concentrations of valerian extract (10 mg/ml) in presence of NMDA (1 mM) significantly decreased the glutamate binding. Neither AMPA nor KA in presence of higher valerian extract concentrations affected the binding. (b) Valerenic acid at 0.008 mg/mL, in presence of 1 mM NMDA, kainic acid (KA) and AMPA, did not affect the glutamate binding. (c) Isoborneol at 0.0008 mg/mL, in presence of 1 mM NMDA, significantly decreased the glutamate binding. At higher concentration (1 mg/mL), isoborneol markedly decreased the glutamate binding in presence of AMPA and KA. +agonist versus agonist + (valerian, valerenic acid, or isoborneol), P < .05; ++P < .01; +++P < .001.

Lisa M. Del Valle-Mojica, et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:403591.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.

Interactions of valerian extracts, valerenic acid, and isoborneol on metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). (a) At lower concentrations of valerian extract (0.05 mg/mL) in presence of LCCG-I, a Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, there was a marked decrease in the binding. This effect was not seen with QA and L-AP4. Valerian extracts at 10 mg/mL, in presence of both QA and LCCG-I, significantly decreased the glutamate binding. ((a)-Insert) A marked decrease in the [3H]Glutamate binding was observed when valerian extracts (0.001 mg/mL) were in the presence of DCG-IV and EGLU, a Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. (b) Valerenic acid concentration at 0.008 mg/mL, in the presence of QA, a Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, produced a significant increase in the binding. No effects were observed in presence of DCG-IV, LCCG-I, EGLU, and L-AP4. (c) Isoborneol, at 0.0008 and 1 mg/mL increased [3H]Glutamate binding by 49% and 64%, respectively. Isoborneol in the presence of mGluR ligands, indiscriminately interacted with all of them. At 0.0008 mg/mL, isoborneol interacted with QA and markedly decreased (14%) [3H]Glutamate binding. In addition, isoborneol interacted with all the mGluR agonists (LCCG-I, DCG-IV, and spaglumic) and antagonist (EGLU). Isoborneol also strongly interacted with L-AP4 at both concentrations (0.0008 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL) and resulted in an increased [3H]Glutamate binding (37% and 46%, resp.). + agonist versus agonist + (valerian, valerenic acid, or isoborneol), P < .05; ++P < .01; +++P < .001.

Lisa M. Del Valle-Mojica, et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:403591.

Supplemental Content

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Write to the Help Desk