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Results: 3

1.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Optogenetic-guided cortical plasticity after nerve injury.

fMRI shows increased BOLD responses within the deprived S1 by illumination of eNpHR. (A) In denervated rats, illumination of eNpHR of the healthy S1 induced increases in BOLD fMRI responses in the deprived S1 ipsilateral to intact FP stimulation. Z maps (P < 0.05) are overlaid on the anatomical images. (B) Group average of the BOLD fMRI response spatial extent in S1 contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) to forepaw electrical stimulation in control (n = 5) and denervated (n = 5) rats with or without illumination of eNpHR (*P < 0.05).

Nan Li, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24;108(21):8838-8843.
2.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Optogenetic-guided cortical plasticity after nerve injury.

Optical imaging shows increased cerebral blood flow responses within the deprived S1 by illumination of eNpHR. (A) Examples of LSCI CBF z activation maps overlaid on original CBF contrast images obtained from healthy [contralateral to forepaw (FP) electrical stimulation] and deprived (ipsilateral to FP electrical stimulation) S1 in denervated rats. Illumination of eNpHR was delivered through an optic fiber, which can be visualized in Lower image. (B) In denervated rats, illumination of eNpHR of the healthy S1 resulted in increased CBF responses in the deprived S1 ipsilateral to intact FP electrical stimulation. Red bars represent FP electrical stimulation. (C) Group average of the CBF responses amplitude changes in S1 contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) to FP electrical stimulation in control (n = 5) and denervated (n = 5) rats with or without illumination of eNpHR (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.005).

Nan Li, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24;108(21):8838-8843.
3.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Optogenetic-guided cortical plasticity after nerve injury.

Electrophysiology shows increased excitatory neuronal activity within the deprived S1 by illumination of eNpHR. (A) A diagram illustrating the experimental design (S1, primary somatosensory cortex; FP, forepaw). (B) Examples of neurons within S1 immunostained with antibodies targeted to EYFP (indicative of eNpHR expression) and CaMKII╬▒ (marker of excitatory pyramidal neurons). (C) Five spike trains obtained from five individual neurons exhibiting long action potential (AP) durations (>0.5 ms) located within lamina V of the deprived S1 in denervated rats. Compared with the spontaneous firing rates (rest) and firing rates in response to intact forepaw electrical stimulation alone, illumination of eNpHR of the healthy S1 combined with intact forepaw electrical stimulation induced increases in the firing rates of long AP duration neurons (i.e., excitatory pyramidal cells). (D) Examples of current source density maps obtained from S1 ipsilateral to intact forepaw electrical stimulation show that illumination of eNpHR of the healthy S1 leads to increases in the inward currents (sink; i.e., excitation) in the deprived S1 of the denervated rats.

Nan Li, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24;108(21):8838-8843.

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