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1.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

Shows XMRF to the spinal cord (A through D), sternum (E through H), and the airway (I through L).

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

XMRF registration protocol. Images at the bottom of the figure show the result of the registration process as seen with the AP camera in the AP (bottom left) projection and with the AP camera rotated to the lateral projection (bottom right).

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

A, Dashed line traces the heart border and the left lateral border of the aorta on the x-ray image. B, XMRF to heart and vessel borders using volume-rendered MRI image; C, maximal intensity projection–rendered image showing the largest cross-section of the heart and great vessels. D through E, Registered volume-rendered MRI and maximal intensity projection images. All images are in the AP projection.

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

A through C, Images of a patient with a small RV-PA conduit that were stored as a collection of bookmarks for roadmapping; D through F, the same images during the catheterization process. B, Pathway from the inferior vena cava to the entrance to the conduit is shown (dashed arrow) on an image that was created with an AP cut-plane. E, Corresponding catheter course is shown. C, Roadmap image that was created with an oblique cut-plane exposing the PA confluence and a hypoplastic left pulmonary artery (LPA). F, Corresponding catheter course with the tip of the catheter positioned in the distal LPA.

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
5.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

Camera angle selection in a patient with complex PA anatomy. In this case, the left pulmonary artery (LPA) originated from the proximal right pulmonary artery and immediately took a 90° turn to the left. There was also proximal LPA hypoplasia. A through D correspond to the AP camera and E through H to the lateral camera. The anatomy is shown in the conventional camera angles (A and B, E and F) and in the angle that was chosen for the contrast angiogram (C and G). D and H, Corresponding contrast angiograms.

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

A and B, XMRF to imaging artifact from sternal wires that resulted in indents on an RV-PA conduit. C and D, Susceptibility artifact from a stent produced a gap in the MRI image of the left pulmonary artery in a patient with a Glenn shunt. D, Insert shows a close-up view of the stent registered between the 2 PA stumps. E and F, Registration to distal conduit calcification. Arrow in E points toward a ring of calcification that formed at the distal end of a RV-PA conduit. All images are in the AP projection.

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
7.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

Anatomy of a patient with an RV-PA conduit and bilateral proximal branch pulmonary artery stenosis (yellow arrows). A and B, Volume-rendered MRI images show the 3 stenotic regions. C, Image taken after a Palmaz XL 40×10-mm stent (Cordis) was placed using an 18×3.5 BiB (NuMed Inc) balloon in the proximal conduit (cyan arrow); a Genesis 3910B stent (Cordis) was placed with a 10×3.5 BiB in the proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) (red arrow), and, simultaneously, a Genesis 2910B stent was placed using a 12×3 BiB in the proximal left pulmonary artery (light green arrow). C, Example of a nonperiodic error caused by distortion of the distal RPA by a stiff wire, resulting in the wire appearing to be outside of the vessel (light blue arrow).

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.
8.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: X-Ray Magnetic Resonance Fusion to Internal Markers and Utility in Congenital Heart Disease Catheterization.

Method used for error calculation. A and B, Volume-rendered MRI image of the phantom in the AP and lateral projections. C, AP projection of 4 dual-modality markers enclosed by the box in A fused to the x-ray image. D, Magnified view of overlaid marker is seen. E, The same marker is seen with a light blue dashed line surrounding the marker as seen on the MRI image and a yellow solid line surrounding the same marker as seen on the x-ray image. The error was calculated as the distance between the center of the 2 circular regions (light green bar). F, Contrast injection into the proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) with insert showing a magnified view of the RPA. Yellow arrow points to the location where the error was measured; the green bar indicates the magnitude of the error at this location.

Yoav Dori, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 July;4(4):415-424.

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