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Results: 4

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. The P. imparis secretion.. From: Chemical Defense by the Native Winter Ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the Invasive Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile).

A single P. imparis worker is shown with a liquid droplet containing bubbles at the tip of its raised abdomen. The secretion is then applied to the body of the L. humile ant.

Trevor R. Sorrells, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18717.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Effect of chemical secretion on L. humile.. From: Chemical Defense by the Native Winter Ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the Invasive Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile).

Proportion of L. humile workers that demonstrated specific behaviors after contact with the P. imparis secretion. There were N = 14 trials in which the P. imparis ant secreted on the L. humile ant.

Trevor R. Sorrells, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18717.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Aggressive interactions in field observations of P. imparis and L. humile.. From: Chemical Defense by the Native Winter Ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the Invasive Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile).

Shown are the mean numbers of aggressive interactions by A. L. humile density and B. P. imparis density. Error bars show standard error of the mean. Sample sizes in A were N = 22 for 1–10, N = 16 for 11–50, N = 4 for 51–150, and N = 2 for 150+. Sample sizes in B were N = 21 for 1–10 and N = 23 for 11–50.

Trevor R. Sorrells, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18717.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. Effect of the relative numbers of L. humile and P. imparis on aggressive behavior.. From: Chemical Defense by the Native Winter Ant (Prenolepis imparis) against the Invasive Argentine Ant (Linepithema humile).

Shown are the mean number of observations per trial of secretion (filled bars), gaster-flagging (hatched bars), and fighting (open bars) in relation to the proportion of P. imparis workers. Each assay was performed with 20 total P. imparis and L. humile workers and N = 15 trials for each proportion. Error bars show standard error of the mean.

Trevor R. Sorrells, et al. PLoS One. 2011;6(4):e18717.

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