Figure 1)

Figure 1). From: Managing dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline.

Comprehensive approach to management of dyspnea in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). ICS Inhaled corticosteroids; LAAC Long-acting anticholinergics; LABA Long-acting beta-2 agonists; NMES Neuromuscular electrical stimulation; O2 Oxygen; PDE4 Phosphodiesterase 4; SABD Short-acting bronchodilators. Adapted from references 109, 110 and 115

Darcy D Marciniuk, et al. Can Respir J. 2011 Mar-Apr;18(2):69-78.

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