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1.
Figure 2, a-c

Figure 2, a-c. From: Somatic translocation: a novel mechanism of granule cell dendritic dysmorphogenesis and dispersion.

Serial confocal maximum projections of a YFP-expressing dentate granule cell exhibiting conversion of a dendritic branch to a primary dendrite. Images taken over six days exhibit the translocation of a dendritic branch (blue arrow) to the cell body at 9 DIV, thus converting it to a primary dendrite. Blue circles denote the length of the primary dendritic segment. Scale bar, 50 μm. d-i: Deconvolved confocal images showing the conversion of a dendritic branch (blue arrow) to a primary dendrite at 8 DIV. Following hypertrophy of the cell body on 12 DIV, the previous dendritic branch – now primary dendrite – precedes to move back into position as a dendritic branch, this time however, on a different dendrite. Scale bar, 25 μm.

Brian L. Murphy, et al. J Neurosci. ;31(8):2959-2964.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Somatic translocation: a novel mechanism of granule cell dendritic dysmorphogenesis and dispersion.

Serial confocal maximum projections of YFP-expressing granule cells showing conversion of apical dendrites into recurrent basal dendrites. (a-d) Images taken over one week show the formation of a recurrent basal dendrite at 10 DIV (white arrow). Blue circles denote the distance between the origin and the first branch point on adjacent dendrites (the primary dendritic segment). Note the contraction of this distance over the course of the experiment. (e-h) Images of an initially normal dentate granule cell that develops two recurrent basal dendrites at 13 DIV. (i-l) Images of the granule cell layer containing the cell shown in e-h (purple arrow). Note the simultaneous appearance of recurrent basal dendrites in e-h and granule cell dispersion in i-l. The vertical white bar shows movement of the cell of interest away from an initially adjacent cell. Scale bar: (a-d) 10 μm; (e-h) 50 μm; (i-l) 100 μm.

Brian L. Murphy, et al. J Neurosci. ;31(8):2959-2964.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Somatic translocation: a novel mechanism of granule cell dendritic dysmorphogenesis and dispersion.

Granule cell dispersion induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid. Confocal maximum projections illustrating the location of the granule cell layer (GCL), inner molecular layer (IML) and outer two-thirds of the molecular layer (MML+OML) in a (a) control mouse, (b) 1wk-IHpKA mouse and (c) 2wk-IHpKA mouse. Note the greater numbers of ectopic granule cells in the inner (white arrows) and outer two-thirds (light blue arrows) of the dentate molecular layers in the ipsilateral hemisphere of a SE-2wk mouse. Scale bar = 30 μm. d-f: Examples of YFP-expressing dentate granule cells with recurrent basal dendrites (white arrowheads) from the ipsilateral hemisphere of KA-SE mice. Granule cells are located in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. The insets in (d-f) are optical sections through the granule cell soma showing the colocalization of YFP (d-i, e-i, f-i) and Prox1 (d-ii, e-ii, f-ii). Scale bar in e applies to d as well and = 20 μm. Scale bar for f = 20 μm.

Brian L. Murphy, et al. J Neurosci. ;31(8):2959-2964.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Somatic translocation: a novel mechanism of granule cell dendritic dysmorphogenesis and dispersion.

Model depicting granule cell dysmorphogenesis following somatic translocation into an apical dendrite. (a) As the soma moves into the initial segment of the left apical dendrite (1), the right apical dendrite is “left behind”, gradually shifting its position from the apical to the basal pole of the cell (2). Continuation of this process leads to a shortening of the initial dendritic segment on the left (3), and conversion of the right apical dendrite into a recurrent basal dendrite (4). In extreme cases, further migration of the soma leads to the absorption of branch points, converting these structures into primary dendrites (5), and the formation of dendritic loops projecting towards the hilus (6). (b) An example of a granule cell exhibiting a recurrent basal dendrite with a pronounced dendritic loop and an unusually large number of apical dendrites; the putative end product of the processes outlined in a. Note that the axon (white arrowhead) projects off the base of the dendritic loop, suggesting that this was the original location of the cell body. Scale bar, 50 μm.

Brian L. Murphy, et al. J Neurosci. ;31(8):2959-2964.

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