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Results: 5

1.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. From: Microbial biofilms on the surface of intravaginal rings worn in non-human primates.

Colposcopic images taken in vivo with the IVRs (indicated by arrows) in place. The white cylinders are the TFV pods (P).

Manjula Gunawardana, et al. J Med Microbiol. 2011 June;60(Pt 6):828-837.
2.
Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. From: Microbial biofilms on the surface of intravaginal rings worn in non-human primates.

Box and whisker plots of vaginal microflora in the absence and presence of IVR. (a) H2O2+producers (Lactobacillus spp. and viridans streptococci). (b) Anaerobic Gram-negatives (black and non-pigmented). The IVR consisted of either control devices without TFV (blank pod) or devices with four TFV pods per ring (TVF pod). The horizontal line represents the median c.f.u. (g vaginal fluid)−1. The data are pooled by group.

Manjula Gunawardana, et al. J Med Microbiol. 2011 June;60(Pt 6):828-837.
3.
Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. From: Microbial biofilms on the surface of intravaginal rings worn in non-human primates.

FISH micrographs of IVR biofilm samples (test animal PZA2) hybridized with EUB338 (red, labels bacteria) and labelled with WGA (green, labels biofilm). Yellow areas represent overlap between signals from both probes. (a) Inner surface of IVR showing the distribution of biofilm and bacteria. Bar, 100 µm. (b) Low magnification view of biofilm and bacteria on an IVR segment, visible as the grey rectangular object. Bar, 1 mm. (c) Imaged ring surface showing dense biofilm. (d) Imaged ring surface showing the location of bacteria. (e) Superimposed image of (c) and (d). Bar, 100 µm.

Manjula Gunawardana, et al. J Med Microbiol. 2011 June;60(Pt 6):828-837.
4.
Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. From: Microbial biofilms on the surface of intravaginal rings worn in non-human primates.

Scanning electron micrographs of surface features on IVRs containing TFV after 28 days implantation. The corresponding macaque ID and scale bar dimensions for each frame are given in parentheses below. (a) Portions of the ring surface were covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells and EPS (PRB2; bar, 1 mm). (b) Biofilms, consisting of bacterial cells linked by thin fibres and amorphous extracellular material, were observed on the surface of epithelial cells (PID2; bar, 10 µm). (c) In other regions, bacterial mats (see inset) were associated with the epithelial cell monolayer (PMD2; bar, 20 µm). (d) Rod-shaped bacteria were interconnected by thin fibres on an amorphous extracellular structure (PID2; bar, 2 µm). (e) At higher magnification, the bacterial mat consisted of bacteria with a variety of shapes. In this image, which shows a disruption at the edge of the biofilm, the bacteria can be clearly observed embedded in the extracellular matrix (PMD2; bar, 2 µm). (f) Side view of bacterial biofilm cross-section used in thickness measurements. The dark stripe at the bottom of the image corresponds to the ring surface (PRB2; bar, 50 µm).

Manjula Gunawardana, et al. J Med Microbiol. 2011 June;60(Pt 6):828-837.
5.
Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. From: Microbial biofilms on the surface of intravaginal rings worn in non-human primates.

Scanning electron micrographs of the surface features on IVRs containing blank (control) pods after 28 days implantation. The corresponding macaque ID and scale bar dimensions for each frame are given in parentheses below. (a) Portions of the ring surface were covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells along with EPS (PZA2; bar, 1 mm). (b) Amorphous biofilms contained numerous bacterial cells and thin fibres (right side). Other regions (left side) of the biofilm had a reticulated appearance. Spherical cells (diameter 4 µm) were associated with the biofilms (PZA2; bar, 10 µm). (c) The monolayer of epithelial cells was covered with bacteria and biofilm EPS. Bacterial cells with different sizes and shapes (see inset) were associated with the epithelial cell surface (PVC2; bar, 20 µm). (d) Some regions of the biofilms contained dense clusters of bacteria with variable size and shape. Long (>2 µm) rod-shaped bacteria were the most abundant and were interconnected by thin fibres (PVC2; bar, 2 µm). (e) Other regions of the biofilms appeared to have more associated extracellular material (PVC2; bar 2 µm). (f) Side view of bacterial biofilm cross-section used in thickness measurements. The clear material at the bottom of the image corresponds to the ring surface (PZA2; bar, 50 µm).

Manjula Gunawardana, et al. J Med Microbiol. 2011 June;60(Pt 6):828-837.

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