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1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Reduced intestinal permeability in gluten-sensitive (GS) patients. Small intestinal permeability was probed by measuring the urinary cumulative 5-hour amount of lactulose (LA) (percentage of ingested), mannitol (MA) and the LA-to-MA ratio as described in (see Methods). Boxes represent the medians and interquartile ranges, and whiskers represent the range of independent determinations in 13 GS patients, 11 celiac disease (CD) patients, and 14 dyspeptic controls (DC) (see intestinal permeability section of the text, pages 8-9). *P < 0.05 relative to DC and P < 0.05 relative to CD (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Reduced numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in gluten-sensitive patients (GS) versus celiac disease patients (CD). Small intestinal bioptic specimens were stained for the T-cell marker CD3 in immunohistochemistry, and CD3+ cells are enumerated as indicated in Methods. Boxes represent the median (interquartile range), and whiskers represent the range of IEL numbers relative to 100 enterocytes in the same samples in 16 GS, 11 CD and 12 dyspeptic controls (DC). ***P < 0.0005 relative to DC; †††P < 0.0005 relative to CD (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Increased levels of transcripts for effector cytokines in the mucosa from celiac disease patients (CD) but not gluten-sensitive patients (GS). Expression of the indicated genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile range) and whiskers represent the range of RNA levels relative to an 18S housekeeping gene in 13 GS, 19 CD and 11 dyspeptic controls (DC). *P < 0.05 relative to DC (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Reduced levels of transcripts of immune regulatory genes in the mucosa from gluten-sensitive patients (GS), but not celiac disease patients (CD). Expression of the indicated genes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile range) and whiskers represent the range of RNA levels relative to an 18S housekeeping gene in 19 GS, 12 CD and 8 dyspeptic controls (DC). *P < 0.05 relative to DC (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.
5.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Increased levels of transcripts for pattern recognition receptors in the mucosa from gluten-sensitive patients (GS) but not celiac disease patients (CD). Expression of the indicated genes encoding for Toll-like receptors TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile range) and whiskers represent the range of RNA levels relative to an 18S housekeeping gene in 8 GS, 12 CD and 5 dyspeptic controls (DC). *P < 0.05 relative to DC (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.
6.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Divergence of gut permeability and mucosal immune gene expression in two gluten-associated conditions: celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.

The relative expression of tight junction (TJ)-related genes in the mucosa of gluten-sensitive patients (GS) versus celiac disease patients (CD). Expression of the indicated genes encoding for components of the TJ complex was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay of RNA extracted from small intestinal bioptic specimens (see Methods). Boxes represent the median (interquartile ratio), and whiskers represent the range of relative RNA levels, expressed as a percentage of an 18S housekeeping gene in 24 GS patients, 31 CD patients and 24 dyspeptic controls. *P < 0.05 relative to CD (Mann-Whitney U test).

Anna Sapone, et al. BMC Med. 2011;9:23-23.

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