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Results: 6

1.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

Schematic illustration of GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG. NRs are encapsulated within a thin layer of silica shell, followed by surface modification with a hydrophobic silane, OTMS. The hydrophobic GNR@SiO2–C18 is then solubilized with PE-PEG with terminal COOH groups for potential bioconjugation. Figure is not drawn to scale.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

Comparison of photothermal stability of GNRs with various surface chemistries. (a) Peak intensity at 812 nm measured after exposure to nanosecond NIR laser at different laser fluencies. GNRs caged with silica are significantly more stable than coated with CTAB, PSS, and SH–PEG. (b–f) Spectra of GNR@CTAB, GNR@PSS, GNR@SH–PEG, GNR@SiO2, and GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG after laser treatments at different laser fluencies.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.
3.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

Spectral and TEM measurements of the colloidal stabilities of GNRs with various surface chemistries. (a–e) Vis-NIR spectra of GNR@CTAB, GNR@PSS, GNR@SH–PEG, GNR@SiO2, and GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG dispersed in water, PBS buffer, 100 mM NaCl solution, OptiMEM, and RPMI cell culture medium. Agglomeration can be detected based on the spectral shift of GNRs’ longitudinal bands. (f–h) Representative TEM images of GNR@CTAB, GNR@SiO2, and GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG dispersed in 100 mM NaCl. This comparison clearly shows that GNR@CTAB and GNR@SiO2 are clustered but GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG remain single.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.
4.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

Photothermal therapy of tumor cells. (a–d) When either NIR laser illumination or GNRs targeted with A10 aptamers are missing, the viabilities of LNCaP cells remain high, 95.2% and 97.5% respectively. (e and f) Combined treatment of NIR laser illumination and GNR-A10 triggers a hyperthermia effect and efficiently kills tumor cells (viability 3.5%). (g and h) When PSMA-negative PC3 cells are used under the same condition as that in (e and f), a negligible therapeutic effect is observed (viability 99.6%), illustrating the specificity of the aptamer targeted GNRs.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.
5.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

TEM and spectroscopic characterization of caged GNRs. (a and b) TEM images of GNR@SiO2 and GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG. The silica shell is 7.5 nm, and the organic molecules on the silica shell surface are not visible because they are not electron-dense materials. (c) Spectroscopic monitoring of GNR encapsulation. Initial CTAB capped GNRs dispersed in water show two extinction peaks at 515 (transverse) and 685 nm (longitudinal). Subsequent surface modifications with an SiO2 shell (dispersed in ethanol), C18 (dispersed in CHCl3) and PE-PEG (dispersed in water) shift the longitudinal peak to 719, 720, and 708 nm, respectively.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.
6.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Multilayer coating of gold nanorods for combined stability and biocompatibility.

Characterization of cytotoxicity and capability of photothermal conversion of GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG. (a) Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG in comparison with GNR@CTAB, GNR@PSS, GNR@SH–PEG, GNR@SiO2 in LNCaP prostate tumor cells. In the concentrations probed (0–0.6 nM), GNR@CTAB show high toxicity but not the other samples (24 h incubation of cells with the various GNRs). (b) Rates of temperature increase (ΔT) for GNR@CTAB, GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG, spherical gold nanoparticles, and water during NIR-laser illumination. When fitted with linear trendlines, GNR@CTAB and GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG show nearly identical performance and their temperature increase rates are approximately 7 and 13 times faster than those of gold nanoparticles and water. (Inset) Vis-NIR extinction spectra of the GNR@SiO2@PE-PEG and spherical gold nanoparticles of 18 nm.

Xiaoge Hu, et al. Phys Chem Chem Phys. ;13(21):10028-10035.

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