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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Excess of quality-adjusted life-years lost owing to obesity and knee osteoarthritis, as a ratio relative to population size. From: Impact of Obesity and Knee Osteoarthritis on Morbidity and Mortality in Older Americans.

The height of each bar represents the ratio of the proportion of total quality-adjusted life-years lost attributable to each sex and race or ethnic group to each group’s size relative to the total U.S. population.

Elena Losina, et al. Ann Intern Med. ;154(4):217-226.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Transitions among health states in the OAPol Model. From: Impact of Obesity and Knee Osteoarthritis on Morbidity and Mortality in Older Americans.

The circles represent the 4 major health states in the OAPol Model. Persons may spend several cycles in the same health state or transition to another health state. Arrows specify transitions between health states, defined by transition probabilities (the OAPol Model input parameters). Comorbid conditions may occur in each state and lead to increased mortality. Incidence of comorbid conditions increases with age and obesity. In particular, comorbid conditions are considered in combination with obesity and knee osteoarthritis. Patients may have 0 to 5 comorbid conditions, for a total of 32 combinations. Therefore, the total number of states is equal to the product of 4 knee osteoarthritis states (no osteoarthritis, Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2, Kellgren–Lawrence grade 3, and Kellgren–Lawrence grade 4), 3 obesity states (normal, obese, and morbidly obese), 32 comorbidity states, and 1 absorbing state (death), for a total of 385 states. Each health state is associated with quality-of-life utilities (i.e., coefficients applied to each cycle [year] spent in a corresponding health state). Death can occur in any health state. OAPol = Osteoarthritis Policy.

Elena Losina, et al. Ann Intern Med. ;154(4):217-226.

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