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1.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

(a) Peak-to-peak amplitudes of LCAP caused by laser stimuli at varying radiant exposures, fiber diameter 200 µm, λ = 1850 nm, 33 Hz, 100 µs pulsewidth. (b) Category plot of letencies of LCAPs recordings in respect to radiant exposure for the first and second component shown in (a).

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

Hydrophone signal in mPa after immersing the 200 µm fiber in a large swimming pool. The tip of the fiber was ~5 mm away from the hydrophone, positioned perpendicular to the microphone axis (like in Fig. 1a). Laser onset indicated by arrow. Laser settings: λ = 1850 nm, 0.35 J/cm2 radiant exposure, 100 Hz, 100 µs pulsewidth.

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
3.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

(a) Masking of laser-evoked LCAPs measured at the round window niche. Radiant exposure for stimulation of the middle cochlear turn was 0.28 J/cm2, 33 Hz, and 100 µs pulsewidth. Laser onset was at 1 ms (arrow). Noncoherent white noise was used for masking: 27–97 dB SPL with increasing levels at 5 dB steps. (b) Masking of LCAPs measured at the round window niche after orienting the 200 µm fiber next to the rat cochlea (laser setting and masking as in (a).

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
4.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

Recorded sound pressure levels over time in front of a 200 µm diameter fiber positioned in a sealed tube filled with two different types of gases (nitrogen versus exhaled air). Note that no sound pressure could be measured in pure nitrogen gas. Laser settings were λ = 1850 nm, 33 Hz repetition rate, 100 µs pulse 0.35 J/cm2 radiant exposure.

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
5.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

(a) Sound field measured in front of the 200 µm diameter laser fiber. The fiber tip position was at 0 on the abscissa.A1/2-in microphone was retracted along the x-axis. Laser settings: λ = 1850 nm, 0.17 J/cm2 radiant exposure, 50.5 µs pulsewidth, and a 33 Hz repetition rate. (b) Latency differences of the laser-induced sound pressure waves depicted in (a). Note that almost no latency shift could be measured along the center beam pathway (at 0 cm on the ordinate) with increasing distance up to 8 cm. Perpendicular to the length of the center beam latency shifts could be noticed (3 cm perpendicular to the center beam at 0 cm distance latency differences were 0.06 ms).

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
6.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

(a) LCAP recorded with a 200 µm fiber oriented toward the middle cochlear turn. The distance between the fiber tip and the cochlea was 1 mm. Laser settings: λ = 1850 nm, 33 Hz, 100 µs pulsewidth 0.35 J/cm2 radiant exposure. Laser onset was at 10 ms (arrow). Note the two components of the CAP at 0.3 ms (+) and 1.14 ms (*) poststimulus. The amplitudes were 1.9 and 2.8 mVpp, respectively. (b) LCAP recorded with a 200 µm fiber oriented 2 mm next to the cochlea inside the bulla. Laser settings as above. Only the second component (*) at 1.26 ms latency showed up with a smaller amplitude of 1.9 mVpp. Note: Different ordinate ranges in (a) and (b).

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.
7.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Acoustic Events and "Optophonic" Cochlear Responses Induced by Pulsed Near-Infrared LASER.

(a) 200 µm laser fiber relative to the recording microphone. Initially, the fiber tip was 2 mm away from the center of the microphone with its axis parallel to the microphone membrane. From there, it was removed in 2 mm steps. (b) Biphasic sound signal (asterisks) generated by a 100-µs laser pulse and 0.05 J/cm2 radiant exposure. The laser fiber is positioned at the starting point described in (a). Laser onset at 0 ms. Note: The time between the two pressure peaks is exactly 100 µs (see inset). The baseline returns back to 0 mPa within 5 ms. (c) Sound pressure levels [peak-to-peak equivalent] of the recorded signal with increasing distance between laser fiber and microphone (n = 4). The solid line represents mean ± standard deviation. Gray lines represent single measurements. λ = 1850 nm, 33 Hz, 100 µs pulsewidth and 0.35 J/cm2. (d) Sound pressure levels [peak-to-peak equivalent] of the recorded signal with different radiant exposure (n = 4). The laser fiber is positioned at the starting point described in (a). The solid line representsmean±standard deviation. Gray lines represent single measurements. λ = 1850 nm, 33 Hz, 100 µs pulsewidth.

Ingo Ulrik Teudt, et al. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2011 June;58(6):1648-1655.

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