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1.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

Peptide-induced apoptosis in primary CLL cells but not in normal lymphocytes. (A) Flow cytometric representations comparing proportions of CLL cells and normal human lymphocytes that are both propidium iodide positive and annexin V positive 24 hours after addition of 10μM TAT-Scr or TAT-IDPDD/AA. (B) Dose-response curves comparing viability of CLL cells versus normal lymphocytes based on flow cytometric quantification of propidium iodide exclusion 24 hours after adding TAT-IDPDD/AA. Results are representative of 2 side-by-side comparisons using CLL cells and normal cells from different donors.

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
2.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

IP3R dependence of Ca2+ oscillations induced by TAT-IDP and TAT-IDPDD/AA. (A) Percent inhibition of peptide (10μM)–induced Ca2+ oscillations by the IP3R inhibitor xestospongin C (10μM) or the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 (0.25μM) in Jurkat cells, based on the percentage of cells displaying Ca2+ oscillations during 90 minutes of single-cell recordings (mean ± SE, 3 experiments, average 85 cells analyzed per treatment condition per experiment). (B) Representative single-cell Ca2+ recordings illustrating Ca2+ responses to 5μM peptide addition (arrow) in wild-type DT40 cells. (C) Percentage of wild-type (WT) and TKO DT40 cells displaying Ca2+ oscillations in response to treatment with 5μM peptides (mean ± SE, 4 experiments, average 60 cells analyzed per recording).

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
3.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

Bcl-2 dependent induction of Ca2+ oscillations by TAT-IDP. (A) Diagram of type-1 IP3R domains designating the origin of the IDP sequence (blue) and the scrambled control sequence (orange), along with the TAT sequence (gray). (B) Immunoblot documenting levels of wild-type and mutant Bcl-2 expressed in Bcl-2–negative WEHI7.2 cells. (C) Number of Ca2+ spikes observed per cell in 70 minutes of recordings after adding 2μM of the peptides shown (mean ± SE, 67 cells total). (D) Representative single-cell Ca2+ recordings in Bcl-2-positive WEHI7.2 cells (2μM TAT-IDP added at arrow); percentages (mean ± SE) of cells displaying each pattern are based on 3 experiments (90 minutes of recording, average 60 cells per recording). (E) Summary of 2 experiments (mean ± SE) comparing TAT-IDP (2μM)–induced Ca2+ responses (90 minutes of recordings, average 60 cells per recording) in Bcl-2–negative versus Bcl-2–positive WEHI7.2 cells. (F) Summary of 3 experiments (mean ± SE) comparing the percentage of cells displaying Ca2+ oscillations in response to the addition of 2μM TAT-IDP to WEHI7.2 cells expressing either wild-type Bcl-2 or Bcl-2RS/GG (90 minutes of recording, average 60 cells per recording).

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

Peptide-induced apoptosis in primary CLL cells. (A) CLL cells from 8 patients were treated with 10μM of each peptide shown and the percentage of dead cells, identified by trypan blue dye uptake, was determined 24 hours later; results are presented as mean ± SE. (B) CLL cells from 4 different patients were treated with 10μM of each peptide shown, and 24 hours later the percentage of cells (mean ± SE) with typical apoptotic morphology was determined by fluorescence microscopic analysis of Hoechst-stained nuclei. (C) Images of Hoechst-stained nuclei illustrating apoptotic morphology 24 hours after treatment with 10μM TAT-IDPDD/AA. (D) Experiments using CLL cells from 6 patients to quantify the percentage of dead cells (mean ± SE) by flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide uptake 24 hours after treatment with 10μM of the peptides shown. (E) Flow cytometric analysis of the same samples shown in panel D quantifying the percentage of annexin V–positive cells (mean ± SE) 24 hours after treatment with 10μM of the peptides shown. (F) Caspase-3/7 activation induced by TAT-IDPDD/AA (mean ± SE, 2 experiments). (G) Representative confocal images of CLL cells loaded with TMRM, indicating loss of mitochondrial membrane potential 24 hours after adding TAT-IDPDD/AA. Top panels are bright-field images; bottom panels are fluorescence images. Bar = 8 μm. (H) Inhibition of TAT-IDPDD/AA–induced CLL cell death by xestospongin C (10μM) added 30 minutes before peptides, based on analysis of 85 cells, representative of 3 experiments using CLL cells from different patients.

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

IDP-induced Ca2+ oscillations in Jurkat T cells and RS11846 B cells. (A) Single-cell Ca2+ recordings showing representative examples of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 10μM TAT-IDP or TAT-IDPDD/AA in more than 50% of Jurkat cells (arrow, peptide addition). (B) Enhancement of TAT-IDP–induced Ca2+ elevation by treating Jurkat cells with 2μM pepstatin A for 45 minutes before peptide addition: (i) percentage of cells with Ca2+ elevation in response to 10μM TAT-IDP in the presence of DMSO or pepstatin A (mean ± SE, 3 experiments, average 78 cells per treatment per experiment); (ii) amplitude of Ca2+ spikes induced by 10μM TAT-IDP (mean ± SE, amplitude of 130 spikes observed in a total of 83 DMSO-treated cells and 299 spikes in a total of 73 pepstatin A-treated cells). (C) Peptide sequences showing the predicted aspartyl protease cleavage site in TAT-IDP and its elimination by the DD/AA substitution in TAT-IDPDD/AA. (D) Percentage of Jurkat cells displaying each of 3 Ca2+ response patterns when untreated or when treated with 10μM TAT-Scr, TAT-IDP, or TAT-IDPDD/AA (mean ± SE, 6 experiments, average of 80 cells analyzed by 90 minutes of single-cell digital imaging per peptide treatment per experiment). (E) Amplitude of Ca2+ spikes during 90 minutes of recordings after 10μM peptide addition to Jurkat cells (mean ± SE, 3 experiments, average 85 cells per peptide addition per experiment). (F) Average Ca2+ oscillatory frequency in untreated and peptide-treated Jurkat cells based on analysis of 90 minutes of recordings (mean ± SE, 3 experiments, average 85 cells per peptide treatment per experiment). (G) Single-cell Ca2+ recordings showing representative examples of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 10μM TAT-IDP or TAT-IDPDD/AA in more than 50% of RS11846 cells (arrow, peptide addition). (H) Amplitude of individual Ca2+ peaks observed in untreated cells and cells treated with 10μM of each peptide (mean ± SE; no spikes in untreated; 34 spikes with TAT-Scr; 104 spikes with TAT-IDP; 248 spikes with TAT-IDPDD/AA). (I) Frequency of Ca2+ oscillations induced by 10μM of each peptide in same dataset analyzed in panel H.

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

Peptide-induced Ca2+ oscillations in primary CLL cells. (A) Immunoblot comparing Bcl-2 levels in normal human B lymphocytes and 3 primary CLL samples. (B-D) Representative single-cell Ca2+ recordings illustrating the Ca2+ responses observed in CLL cells after addition (arrow) of 10μM of each peptide shown. Portions of the traces in panel D are magnified (insets) to illustrate the baseline Ca2+ elevation induced by TAT-IDPDD/AA. (E) Percentage of CLL cells displaying Ca2+ oscillations in response to 10μM peptide addition during 90 minutes of single-cell recordings (mean ± SE, 3 experiments each using CLL cells isolated from a different patient, average 85 cells per experiment). (F) Amplitude of individual Ca2+ spikes in the same experiments shown in panel E (mean ± SE). (G) Inhibition of peptide-induced Ca2+ oscillations by xestospongin C summarized as percentage of CLL cells displaying Ca2+ oscillations during 90 minutes of single-cell recordings after the addition of TAT-IDPDD/AA (5-10μM); cells were pretreated for 30 minutes with either DMSO (−) or 10μM xestospongin C (+) (mean ± SE, 4 experiments, average 75 cells analyzed per recording). (H) Failure of ABT-737 to induce Ca2+ elevation: (i) representative single-cell Ca2+ recordings in CLL cells, with arrow designating addition of 5μM TAT-Scr or TAT-IDP or 2μM ABT-737; (ii) percentage of CLL cells with Ca2+ oscillations in response to 5μM TAT-Scr or TAT-IDP or 2μM ABT-737, with symbols representing the mean ± SE in 2 experiments (average 80 cells per experiment); (iii) cell death (trypan blue dye uptake) in CLL cells incubated with or without 2μM ABT-737 for 24 hours, with symbols representing the mean ± SE in 7 experiments (average 400 cells counted per individual treatment).

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.
7.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Induction of Ca2+-driven apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by peptide-mediated disruption of Bcl-2-IP3 receptor interaction.

Biochemical and functional characterization of the DD/AA substitution. (A) Typical GST pull-down experiment documenting the binding of 3xFLAG-Bcl-2 in COS-7 cell lysate to GST-Domain3 and GST-Domain3DD/AA using GST as a negative control. GelCode blue–stained membrane showing the presence of GST and the GST-fusion proteins, 7.5 μg each, in the pull-down assay are shown in the top left panel. Immunoblot using an anti-FLAG antibody coupled to horseradish peroxidase to detect 3xFLAG-Bcl-2 both in the input lane and in the pull-down lanes is shown in the bottom left panel. Quantitative analysis of the binding of 3xFLAG-Bcl-2 to GST, GST-Domain3, and GST-Domain3DD/AA by densitometry (ImageJ software) is shown in the right panel. Results (mean ± SE, 4 experiments) were normalized for the binding of 3xFLAG-Bcl-2 to GST. 3xFLAG-Bcl-2 displayed significant binding to both GST-Domain3 and GST-Domain3DD/AA (P < .01). (B) SPR demonstrating the binding of both GST-domain3 and GST-domain3DD/AA with a biotin-tagged peptide corresponding to the BH4 domain of Bcl-2 (biotin-BH4-Bcl-2). Typical sensor grams illustrating the association phase of the binding of different concentrations of GST-Domain3 (top left), GST-Domain3DD/AA (top right), and GST (bottom left) to Biotin-BH4-Bcl-2 immobilized to a streptavidin-coated sensor chip. All GST-fusion proteins were dialyzed against the interaction buffer (PBS) to minimize the buffer effect. Values were corrected for background binding of the GST-fusion proteins to Biotin-BH4-Bcl-2reverse. Resonance units (R.U.) increased with increasing concentrations of GST-Domain3 (0.037-3.3μM) or GST-Domain3DD/AA (0.037-3.3μM), but not with increasing concentrations of GST (1-20μM). Quantitative analysis of the background-corrected R.U. signals plotted as mean ± SE obtained from 3 independent experiments (bottom right), in which different concentrations of GST-Domain3, GST-Domain3DD/AA, and GST were applied to the BH4-Bcl-2-coated sensor chip. The data points obtained from GST-Domain3 and GST-Domain3DD/AA were fitted using Origin 7.0 software by a Hill equation, yielding apparent KDs of 0.37 ± 0.13μM and 0.57 ± 0.4μM, respectively. (C) Binding of IDPDD/AA to Bcl-2 demonstrated by biotin-streptavidin pull-down of Bcl-2 from lysate of WEHI7.2 cells overexpressing wild-type Bcl-2. Cell lysate was incubated with or without the indicated peptides for 16 hours, followed by incubation with streptavidin-coated beads. Bcl-2 bound to the beads via biotin-tagged IDPDD/AA was detected by immunoblotting. Results are representative of 3 separate experiments with the same result. (D) Disruption of Bcl-2-IP3R interaction by IDPDD/AA. Bcl-2 was immunoprecipitated from lysates of WEHI7.2 cells overexpressing wild-type Bcl-2. Immunoprecipitated proteins were analyzed by immunoblotting for IP3R3 and Bcl-2. (E) IDPDD/AA prevents the inhibition of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release by BH4-Bcl-2, a peptide corresponding to the BH4 domain Bcl-2. A typical unidirectional 45Ca2+-efflux experiment showing the Ca2+ release induced by 3μM IP3 from permeabilized 45Ca2+-loaded wild-type MEF cells in the presence of vehicle (■), 40μM BH4-Bcl-2 peptide (●), 40μM BH4-Bcl-2 peptide and 40μM IDPDD/AA (▴). All peptides were incubated from 4 minutes before the addition of IP3 to 2 minutes after its addition (bars). Data points of a representative experiment, plotted as fractional loss (percentage/2 minutes) as a function of time, were obtained in duplicate and represent mean ± SD.

Fei Zhong, et al. Blood. 2011 March 10;117(10):2924-2934.

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