Results: 2

1.

FIG. 1. From: Origin and Evolution of HIV-1 in Breast Milk Determined by Single-Genome Amplification and Sequencing .

HIV variants in milk do not appear to be compartmentalized from plasma virus variants in phylogenetic analyses yet display a higher frequency of genetically identical virus variants than that of plasma virus variants. Trees from maximum likelihood analyses are shown for full-length HIV env RNA nucleotide sequences amplified by single-genome amplification from milk (dark blue circles) and plasma (red circles) from 12 chronically HIV-infected Malawian women (A to L). HIV env sequences amplified from milk from the left breast are identified with filled circles, and those amplified from milk from the right breast are noted with stars. Open blue bars represent groups of identical viruses from the right breast, and filled blue bars represent groups of identical viruses from the left breast. Numerals at nodes indicate approximate likelihood ratio test values of ≥0.95. The scale bar represents 0.01 nuclear substitution per site. Groups of identical env sequences in plasma (red bars) or breast milk (blue bars) are indicated and numbered.

Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez, et al. J Virol. 2011 March;85(6):2751-2763.
2.
FIG. 2.

FIG. 2. From: Origin and Evolution of HIV-1 in Breast Milk Determined by Single-Genome Amplification and Sequencing .

Milk and plasma HIV variants evolve similarly over time, with clonal amplification of new virus variants in milk. Trees from maximum likelihood analyses are shown for full-length HIV env RNA nucleotide sequences amplified by single-genome amplification from milk (dark blue circles) and plasmas (red circles) obtained at 4 to 5 weeks and from milk (light blue squares) and plasmas (pink squares) obtained 3 months after delivery from two chronically HIV-infected, lactating women. Numerals at nodes indicate approximate likelihood ratio test values of ≥0.95. The scale bar represents 0.01 nuclear substitution per site. Groups of identical sequences in plasma at 4 to 5 weeks (red bars) and 3 months (pink bars) or in breast milk at 4 to 5 weeks (dark blue bars) and 3 months (light blue bars) are indicated.

Jesus F. Salazar-Gonzalez, et al. J Virol. 2011 March;85(6):2751-2763.

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