Results: 4

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Severe Mood Dysregulation, Irritability, and the Diagnostic Boundaries of Bipolar Disorder in Youths.

Research Diagnostic Criteria for Severe Mood Dysregulationa
a Adapted from Leibenluft et al. (14).

Ellen Leibenluft. Am J Psychiatry. ;168(2):129-142.
2.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Severe Mood Dysregulation, Irritability, and the Diagnostic Boundaries of Bipolar Disorder in Youths.

Psychological Processes and Neural Circuits Hypothesized to Contribute to Pathologic Irritabilitya
aACC=anterior cingulate cortex; PFC=prefrontal cortex; NAcc=nucleus accumbens.

Ellen Leibenluft. Am J Psychiatry. ;168(2):129-142.
3.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Severe Mood Dysregulation, Irritability, and the Diagnostic Boundaries of Bipolar Disorder in Youths.

Left Amygdala Activation During Ratings of Subjective Fear Versus Nose Width While Viewing Neutral Facesa
a Reprinted from Brotman et al. (58).
b Amygdala activation in ADHD patients was greater than that for healthy comparison subjects (p=0.05).
c Amygdala activation in ADHD patients was greater than that for bipolar disorder patients (p=0.05).
d Amygdala activation in severe mood dysregulation patients was less than that for bipolar disorder patients (p=0.04).
e Amygdala activation in severe mood dysregulation patients was less than that for ADHD patients (p<0.01).
f Amygdala activation in severe mood dysregulation patients was less than that for healthy comparison subjects (p=0.04).

Ellen Leibenluft. Am J Psychiatry. ;168(2):129-142.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Severe Mood Dysregulation, Irritability, and the Diagnostic Boundaries of Bipolar Disorder in Youths.

Face Emotion Labeling Errors, Adjusted for Sex, Age, IQ, and Ethnicity, in Youths With Mood and Behavior Disordersa
a Adapted from Guyer et al. (56). Bipolar disorder (N=42); severe mood dysregulation (N=39); ANX/MDD=generalized anxiety, social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or major depression (N=44); ADHD/CD=attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or conduct disorder (N=35); HC=healthy comparison subjects (N=92). Between-group differences: severe mood dysregulation > ANX/ MDD, ADHD/CD, p<0.01; bipolar disorder > ANX/MDD, ADHD/CD, p<0.001; severe mood dysregulation and bipolar disorder did not differ.

Ellen Leibenluft. Am J Psychiatry. ;168(2):129-142.

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