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Results: 5

1.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Generation, characterization and intracerebroventricular injection of alternatively activated macrophages. From: Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice.

(a) Representative image of alternatively activated bone marrow-derived macrophages after nine days in culture. (b) FACS analysis of M1 and M2 skewed macrophages labeled for TNFα and CD206 expression. (c) Representative images of CFSE-labeled macrophages in ventricles 3d after i.c.v. injection are shown.

Noel C. Derecki, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;25(3):379-385.
2.
Figure 5

Figure 5. I.v. injection of M2 cells into SCID mice results in an anti-inflammatory skew of endogenous meningeal myeloid cells. From: Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice.

FACS analyses were performed on viable, CD45+/CD11b+ cells isolated from (a-c) meninges and (d-f) spleen of MWM-trained mice. Numbers on histograms indicate percentages. CD11b+ cells from both spleens and meninges of M1- or M2- injected animals and their vehicle-injected controls were examined for (a, d) Ly6C, (b, e) TNFα, and (c, f) IL-10 expression. Representative experiment out of two independently performed is presented (n = 8 mice in each group).

Noel C. Derecki, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;25(3):379-385.
3.
Figure 3

Figure 3. I.c.v. injection of M2 cells into SCID mice results in an anti-inflammatory skew of endogenous meningeal myeloid cells. From: Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice.

FACS analyses were performed on viable, CD45+/CD11b+ cells isolated from (a, c) meninges and (b) spleen of MWM-trained mice. Numbers on histograms indicate percentages. CD11b+ cells from both spleens and meninges of M2-injected animals showed up-regulation of CD206 as compared to vehicle-injected control. (c) Endogenous meningeal myeloid cells of M2-injected animals also displayed decreased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and increased production of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Representative experiment out of two independently performed is presented (n = 8 mice in each group).

Noel C. Derecki, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;25(3):379-385.
4.
Figure 4

Figure 4. Intravenous injection of M2 improves cognitive performance of SCID mice on MWM task. From: Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice.

SCID mice (C57BL/6J) were injected i.v. with either M1-skewed macrophages, M2-skewed macrophages or PBS vehicle (N=8 in each group) and monitored during MWM task performance. During (a) the acquisition and (c) the reversal phases of the task, M2-injected mice took significantly less time than M1- or vehicle-injected controls to locate the hidden platform. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test was used for statistical analysis (**, p < 0.01). (b) During the probe trial, M2-injected mice spent significantly more time in the training quadrant than M1- or vehicle-injected controls. Student's t-test; (*, p < 0.05). Representative experiments are shown out of two independently performed.

Noel C. Derecki, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;25(3):379-385.
5.
Figure 2

Figure 2. I.c.v. injection of M2 cells into SCID mice marginally benefits MWM performance. From: Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice.

SCID mice (C57BL/6J) were injected i.c.v. with either M2-skewed macrophages (N=8) or ACSV vehicle (N=8) and monitored during MWM task performance. (a) During the acquisition and (b) the probe trial phases, no significant difference between the two groups was obtained. (c) During the reverse phase, M2-injected mice took significantly less time to locate the hidden platform as compared to their controls. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test was used for statistical analysis (**, p < 0.01). All behavior experiments were recorded with the EthoVision video tracking system and performed by an experimenter blinded to the identity of experimental groups. Representative experiments are shown out of two independently performed.

Noel C. Derecki, et al. Brain Behav Immun. ;25(3):379-385.

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