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1.
Fig. 7

Fig. 7. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

Histological assessment of lung sections. Naïve mice were sensitized with PBS- or GC frass-pulsed BMDCs on day 0. Mice were challenged with PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) on day 14. On day 17, lungs were isolated and fixed in formalin. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of sectioned lungs from PBS-pulsed BMDC-exposed mice (a) and GC frass-pulsed BMDC-exposed mice (b). PAS staining of sectioned lungs from PBS-pulsed BMDC-exposed mice (c) and GC frass-pulsed BMDC-exposed mice (d). Representative slides are shown of sections from 4 mice per group.

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

GC frass-induced BMDC cytokine production. BMDC were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF for 6 days prior to treatment with GC frass (1 μg/ml); 18 h later, cell supernatants were collected, clarified and analyzed by ELISA. In all cases, means ± SEM are reported for each chemokine in pg/ml (n = 4–6 experiments) and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA (∗ p < 0.001. a IL-6 levels. b IL-23 levels. c IL-12p70 levels.

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
3.
Fig. 8

Fig. 8. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

MyD88-deficient BMDCs do not respond to GC frass. BMDCs from wild-type (C57Bl/6) or MyD88-deficient mice were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF for 6 days prior to treatment with GC frass (1 μg/ml). 18 h later, cell supernatants were collected, clarified and analyzed by ELISA. In all cases, means ± SEM are reported for each chemokine in pg/ml (n = 4 experiments) and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. a IL-6 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS; + p < 0.001 vs. frass). b IL-23 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS; + p < 0.001 vs. frass). c IL-12p70 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS; + p < 0.001 vs. frass).

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
4.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

A single exposure to GC frass induced DC chemokine release from resident airway cells. Naïve mice were administered a single intratracheal instillation of PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) and BAL fluid was harvested 18 h later and analyzed by ELISA. In all cases, means ± SEM are reported for each chemokine in pg/ml (n = 8 mice per group) and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. a CCL20 (∗ p < 0.001). b MIP-1α (∗ p < 0.001). c GM-CSF (∗ p = 0.003). d G-CSF (∗ p = 0.003).

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
5.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

Mouse exposure protocols. a Mice were exposed to a single intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) and BAL fluid was harvested 18 h later. Lungs were isolated and cultured for an additional 24 h in the absence of additional stimulation. b Mice were exposed to a single intratracheal instillation and lungs were harvested 24 h later for analysis by flow cytometry. c PBS- or GC frasspulsed BMDC were instilled intratracheally at day 0; 14 days later, mice received an intratracheal instillation of either PBS or GC frass. On day 17, airway measurements were performed.

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
6.

Fig. 3. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

DC subsets in the lungs following mucosal exposure to PBS. Naïve mice were administered a single intratracheal instillation of PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) and whole lungs were isolated 24 h later. Cells were dissociated from the lungs and stained for flow cytometry analysis. a A representative flow cytometry plot showing the characterization of mDCs (CD11c+, CD11b+, Gr1neg, CD317neg) and pDCs (CD11c+, CD11bneg, Gr1low, CD317+). b Total mDCs. c Percentage of mDCs. d Total pDCs. e Percentage of pDCs. Values are means ± SEM, n = 16 mice/group; statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS).

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
7.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

A single exposure to GC frass induced cytokine production in the whole lung. Naïve mice were administered a single intratracheal instillation of PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) and whole lungs were isolated 18 h later. Cells were dissociated and cultured for an additional 24 h in the absence of additional stimuli. Cell supernatants were collected, clarified and analyzed by ELISA. In all cases, means ± SEM are reported for each chemokine in pg/ml (n = 8 mice/group) and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS). a IL-5 levels. b IL-17A levels. c IL-6 levels. d IFN-γ levels (not significant).

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.
8.
Fig. 6

Fig. 6. From: Early Immunological Response to German Cockroach Frass Exposure Induces a Th2/Th17 Environment.

Adoptive transfer of PBS- or GC frass-pulsed mDCs to naïve mice induced AHR and a Th2/Th17 phenotype. Naïve mice were sensitized with PBS- or GC frass-pulsed BMDC on day 0. Mice were challenged with PBS (40 μl) or GC frass (40 μg/40 μl) on day 14. On day 17, mice were anesthetized and acetylcholine was injected after establishment of a stable airway pressure. In all cases, means ± SEM are reported for each chemokine in pg/ml (n = 8 mice/group) and statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. a AHR was measured as airway pressure time index (APTI) in cm H2O × s−1 (compared to PBS, ∗ p < 0.001). Lungs from the mice were excised, cells dissociated and maintained in a single suspension culture for 3 days in the presence of ConA (10 μg/ml). Cell supernatants were collected, clarified and analyzed by ELISA. b IL-4 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS). c IL-5 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS). d IL-13 levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS). e IL-17A levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS). f IFN-γ levels (∗ p < 0.001 vs. PBS).

Kristen Page, et al. J Innate Immun. 2011 February;3(2):167-179.

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