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Results: 4

1.
Figure 4

Figure 4. shRNA silencing of MSH2 in FRDA iPSCs. From: Friedreich's Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Model Intergenerational GAAoTTC Triplet Repeat Instability.

(A) Diagram of silencing experiment.
(B) MSH2 mRNA levels of targeted and scrambled shRNA-expressing FRDA iPSCs. mRNA levels are normalized to GAPDH. Errors bars = SEM of duplicate measurements.
(C) Western blot of MSH2 protein in FRDA iPSCs with scrambled shRNA and targeted shRNA. GAPDH, loading control.
(D) Densitometric analysis of MSH2 protein normalized to GAPDH of previous panel.
(E) PCR of GAA•TTC repeat lengths pre-silencing (starting iPSC) and eight passages after transduction with no shRNA (no shRNA), scrambled shRNA (scrambled), and shRNA against MSH2 (targeted). Note: data are from single point data and do not represent pooled data (panel G).
(F) Signal intensity traces of ethidium-stained agarose gel from panel E. Higher gel migration represents smaller PCR bands.
(G) Summary of pooled GAA•TTC repeat length data. See Supplemental Experimental Procedures for quantitation of repeat lengths.
See also Figure S2.

Sherman Ku, et al. Cell Stem Cell. ;7(5):631-637.
2.
Figure 3

Figure 3. MSH2 expression and localization in FRDA iPSCs. From: Friedreich's Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Model Intergenerational GAAoTTC Triplet Repeat Instability.

(A) MSH2, MSH3, and OGG1 mRNA levels in GM03816 fibroblasts (white), two GM03816 iPSC lines (iPS4, medium grey; iPS6, dark grey) and H1 cells (light grey). Levels are normalized to GAPDH. Errors bars = SEM of duplicate measurements.
(B) Western blot of MSH2 protein. Left to right: GM03816 fibroblast, two GM03816 iPSC lines (4 and 6), and H1 hESCs. GAPDH and L13a are loading controls.
(C) MSH2, MSH3, and MSH6 occupancy on the FXN gene 1254 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site (−1254), upstream (up GAA) and downstream (down GAA) of the GAA•TTC repeat expansion (measured by ChIP). IP recovery is relative to FXN intron 2 (11482 bp downstream of the transcriptional start site). Error bars = SEM of independent experiments (MSH2, n = 4; MSH3 and MSH6, n = 2).

Sherman Ku, et al. Cell Stem Cell. ;7(5):631-637.
3.
Figure 2

Figure 2. Analysis of GAA•TTC repeat lengths. From: Friedreich's Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Model Intergenerational GAAoTTC Triplet Repeat Instability.

(A) PCR analysis of FXN GAA•TTC repeat length in cell lines, patient lymphocytes, and FRDA iPSCs. DNA length markers are shown in bp. Lanes are as follows (left to right): Left panel: GM15851 unaffected and GM15850 FRDA lymphoblasts; FRDA patient D lymphocytes; GM03816 FRDA fibroblasts; GM03816-derived iPS lines 1–4; no DNA control (neg). Middle panel: GM04078 FRDA fibroblasts; GM04078-derived iPSCs (GM0478-iPS1). Right panel: GM03813 SMA fibroblasts and two corresponding iPSC lines (GM03813-iPS1 and -iPS-2).
(B) PCR products of the FXN GAA•TTC repeat region in carrier parents of a FRDA patient. Left panel (left to right): maternal fibroblast and three corresponding iPSC lines. Right panel (left to right): paternal fibroblast and one corresponding iPSC line.
(C) GAA•TTC repeats at two unrelated genetic loci in FRDA (GM03816- and GM04078-derived) and SMA (GM03813-derived) fibroblasts and two iPSC lines. PCR products from GM15851 FRDA lymphoblasts are also shown.
(D) FXN GAA•TTC repeat length PCR measurements over time. Left to right: FRDA fibroblasts (GM03816), early passage FRDA iPSC (iPS6 early), and three FRDA iPSC single colony samples at passage 15 (iPS6 late a–c).

Sherman Ku, et al. Cell Stem Cell. ;7(5):631-637.
4.
Figure 1

Figure 1. Characterization of FRDA iPSCs. From: Friedreich's Ataxia Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Model Intergenerational GAAoTTC Triplet Repeat Instability.

(A) Images of GM03816 FRDA fibroblasts (left), GM03816 iPSCs (middle), and H1 hESCs (right). Scale bars = 0.5 mm.
(B) GM03816-iPS4 shows similar expression of pluripotency mRNAs as H1 hESCs. GM03816 fibroblasts, white bars; GM03816 iPSCs, light grey; H1 hESCs, dark grey. mRNA levels are normalized to GAPDH. Error bars = SEM of duplicate measurements.
(C) Hallmark repression of FXN mRNA in GM03816 fibroblasts and the GM03816-iPS4 line as compared to the unaffected H1 line. Error bars = SEM of duplicate measurements.
(D) GM03816-iPS4 and H1 hES staining (contrast enhanced) of pluripotency markers. Phase contrast (gray); nuclear staining (blue); pluripotency markers staining (green and red) is as denoted by the colored text labels. Tra1–60 and Tra1–81, surface markers; SSEA-3 and -4, stage-specific embryonic antigens; Oct4, transcription factor. Scale bars = 0.25 mm.
(E) Microarray analysis of FRDA iPSCs versus unaffected iPSC/ESCs, human tissues, and cell lines. Red represents up-regulation, green represents down-regulation. Unaffected iPS/ESCs, red highlighting; FRDA iPSCs, yellow; unaffected human tissue, blue; human cell lines, gray. See also Figure S1 and Tables S1–S3.

Sherman Ku, et al. Cell Stem Cell. ;7(5):631-637.

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