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1.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Recovery of erectile events shown for all groups. The estimated marginal means determined by ANCOVA with baseline being the covariate is shown for baseline (BL) and days 2, 5, 14, and 84 after SCI. In A full erectile events are shown set at BL=54 erectile events per 24h and in B partial erectile events are shown set at BL=10.6 partial erectile events per 24h.
: significantly different from BL.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
2.

Figure 9. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Quantification of cAMP concentrations at 14 days after injury. A shows cAMP concentrations determined in a cranial section, lesion center, and caudal section of spinal cord. B shows cAMP concentrations determined in cranial spinal cord, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid. The value for serum is graphed at 10x the actual value for display purposes. LC = lesion center; UI = uninjured control; OP = operated control; cAMP = cAMP control; CSF = cerebrospinal fluid.
: significantly different from uninjured control.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
3.
Figure 7

Figure 7. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Ex copulatory reflex erection test results. For all groups of rats the latency (time to first erection after sheath retraction) (A) and the number of peaks per event (B) are shown for baseline (BL) and for the duration of the study.
✦: all groups significantly different from BL; GRP control and GRP cAMP groups significantly different from AM control.
✦✦: GRP control and cAMP control significantly different from BL; all groups significantly different from AM control.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
4.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Differentiation of hPLAP positive GRP cells. Each confocal image (A-H) represents one optical slice from a 20 μm section. In A and B GRP cells are shown that express both hPLAP (red) and nestin (green). In C and D GRP cells are shown that express both hPLAP (red) and GFAP (green). In E and F GRP cells are shown that express both hPLAP (red) and CC-1 (green). In G and H GRP cells are shown that express both hPLAP (red) and NG2 (green). Cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). Scale bar in A, C, E, and G = 50μm and B, D, F, and H = 10μm.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
5.
Figure 8

Figure 8. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Recovery of locomotion function. For the 4 groups of rats the BBB locomotor score (A) and level of activity in home cage (B; AVG ± SE) are shown for baseline (BL) and for the duration of the study. The open arrow indicates time of transplantation surgery (day 9). The level of activity of the AM control group in B is indicated with the black arrow.
: all groups significantly different from BL; ✦✦: OP control, cAMP control, GRP cAMP, and AM control significantly different from BL.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
6.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Recovery of micturition function shown for all groups. A shows the estimated marginal means of the number of micturitions per 24 hours determined by ANCOVA set with the coveriate baseline (BL) at 25.3 micturitions/24h for BL and days 2, 5, 14, and 84 after SCI. In B the estimated marginal means of the micturition duration are shown determined by ANCOVA set at BL=3.4s (covariate) and in C the estimated marginal means of the micturition peak frequency are shown determined by ANCOVA set at BL=8.6Hz (covariate) for BL and days 5, 14, and 84 after SCI.
✦✦: significantly different from BL; : significantly different from AM control

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
7.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Lesion center analysis. Representative lesion centers show in A = OP control, B = GRP control, C = cAMP control, and D = GRP cAMP. Sections are 20 μm thick and stained for GFAP, hPLAP, and DAPI. Green represents astrocytes (GFAP), red / yellow represents GRP cells (hPLAP), and blue represents nuclei (DAPI). In E the spared white matter is shown as a percentage of the area of a caudal section of thoracic spinal cord. In F the area of hPLAP positive tissue at lesion center is shown as a percentage of GFAP positive tissue in a more caudal section of thoracic spinal cord. : significantly different from GRP control.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
8.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Location of dorsomedial (A) and dorsolateral nuclei (B) in the lumbosacral spinal cord, examples of motor neurons located in the dorsomedial or dorsolateral nuclei (C and D), and quantification of serotonin in close proximity to these motor neurons (E). Sections in A and B are stained for serotonin (green) and cell nuclei (blue; TOTO-3 cyanine dimer nucleic acid stain, Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA, USA; 2mM) by immunohistochemistry. In A the 2 dorsomedial nuclei are shown left and right from midline just ventral to the central canal. B shows the right dorsolateral nucleus in the ventral horn of the lumbosacral spinal cord. Sections in C and D are 20 μm thick and stained for serotonin (green), synaptophysin (red), and DNA/RNA (TOTO-3) by immunohistochemistry. The extensive dendritic field with synapses in these nuclei and the serotonergic input (green) to the motor neurons is shown here. Scale bar (C and D) = 50 μm. In E the quantification of serotonin in close proximity to motor neurons is shown in arbitrary units for all groups of rats. : significantly different from AM control.

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.
9.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Glial Restricted Precursor Cell Transplant with Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Improved Some Autonomic Functions but Resulted in a Reduced Graft Size after Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats.

Lesion region analysis. In A the top panel shows a horizontal section through the lesion in which the extent of the hPLAP positive transplant can be seen; cranial to the left. The bottom panel shows representative images of 9 of the 10 animals that received GRP cell transplants are shown. Sections are 20 μm thick and stained for serotonin (top panel; green), astrocytes (bottom panel; GFAP = green), GRP cells (hPLAP = red), and cell nuclei (DAPI = blue). In B the area of GFAP positive tissue in the lesion region shown as a percentage relative to the cranial and caudal cord and in C the lesion region and transplant volumes are shown determined from transverse sections. The bars to the left show the expected volumes should there be no tissue loss, the bars in the middle show the volumes of tissue remaining, and the bars to the right show the volumes of the GRP transplants for both groups. D shows quantification of serotonin cranial and caudal to the lesion center.
✦: significantly different from OP control and cAMP control (B); significantly different from hPLAP positive volume in GRP control (C); percentage reduction significantly different from OP control (D).

Yvette S. Nout, et al. Exp Neurol. ;227(1):159-171.

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