Figure 1

Figure 1. PRR Ligands Shape Adaptive T Cell Immunity through Direct and Indirect Effects on Dendritic Cells. From: Vaccine Adjuvants: Putting Innate Immunity to Work.

(A) Expression of PRRs in human antigen-presenting and nonhematopoietic cells. The ability of the corresponding PRR ligands to produce cytokines and induce Th1 cell and cross-presentation from such cells is depicted below. MPL-based adjuvants (ASO1, ASO2, ASO4) activate monocyte and myeloid DCs, whereas TLR7 (Imiquimod) and TLR9 (CpG) ligands activate pDCs. Such adjuvants induce Th1 cell and low-level CD8+ T cell responses. In humans, it is not clear whether these cells contribute to cross-priming in vivo.
(B) The influence of direct innate activation and antigen presentation, bystander innate immunity on antigen presentation, or both together are shown. The relative potency of Th1 cell and CD8+ T cell immunity from these respective pathways are derived from in vivo mouse studies. Optimal Th1 cell and CD8+ T cell immunity is elicited by direct activation of antigen-presenting cells and bystander production of type I IFN. This can be achieved by using Poly IC and TLR7-TLR8 ligands as adjuvants, with the source of type I IFN derived from nonhematopoetic and pDCs, respectively.

Robert L. Coffman, et al. Immunity. ;33(4):492-503.

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