Results: 3

1.
Figure 3.

Figure 3. From: Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood.

Higher parental education predicted a comparatively stronger directional (effective) connectivity from the dMPFC (BA10) to the ventral striatum, as modulated by PF stimuli signaling monetary gains. At upper right is an illustration of the PF-modulated feedforward pathway from the dMPFC to the ventral striatum, which was estimated across participants by DCM (see Materials and Methods). At lower left are the normalized, covariate-adjusted, and z-score standardized (±standard error) DCM connectivity coefficients for the dMPFC⇒ventral striatum pathway as a function of the parental education groups (as in Figs 1–2). Variables used for covariate adjustment by multiple regression were participants’ own (adult) educational attainment, age, sex, family income, community-level socioeconomic position, alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and dispositional reward responsiveness (see Materials and Methods).

Peter J. Gianaros, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2011 April;21(4):896-910.
2.
Figure 1.

Figure 1. From: Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood.

Higher parental education predicted greater activation of the pACC (BA32) and LPFC (BA45) to stimuli signaling monetary gains (PF) compared with monetary losses (NF) (panel A), along with greater activation of the dMPFC (BA10) and IPC (BA39) to stimuli signaling monetary gains compared with a control condition (panel C). Data shown in panels A and C are clusters where parental education was associated with activation to PF at whole-brain corrected statistical significance thresholds implemented in mixed-effects parametric analyses with covariate control for personal (adult) educational attainment (see Materials and Methods). MNI coordinates for peaks within each labeled cluster and corresponding statistics are as follows: Panel A, pACC (−2, 40, −2, t73 = 4.51, z = 4.22, k = 109) and LPFC (−42, 18, 20, t73 = 4.35, z = 4.09, k = 80); Panel C, dMPFC (0, 60, 26, t73 = 4.55, z = 4.26, k = 167) and IPC (−44, −60, 32, t73 = 5.86, z = 5.29, k = 107). Shown in panels B and D are mean (±standard error) extracted contrast parameter estimates corresponding to BOLD activation values for each of the 4 clusters shown in panels A and C. Participants in the higher parental education group had a biological mother or father who attained a postsecondary or higher degree. Participants in the lower parental education group did not have a biological mother or father who attained a postsecondary or higher degree (see Materials and Methods).

Peter J. Gianaros, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2011 April;21(4):896-910.
3.
Figure 2.

Figure 2. From: Parental Education Predicts Corticostriatal Functionality in Adulthood.

Higher parental education predicted a greater functional connectivity between the pACC (BA 32) and 3 regions of the OFC, encompassing BA47 of the right and left OFC and BA11 of the medial OFC (panel A). Higher parental education also predicted a greater functional connectivity between the dMPFC (BA10) and the left ventral striatum (panel C). Panels A and C illustrate statistical parametric maps from ROI analyses revealing areas of the OFC (A) and ventral striatum (C) where parental education was associated positively with functional connectivity for each seed shown after covariate control for participants’ own education. Parametric maps are displayed at ROI-volume corrected statistical thresholds (see Materials and Methods). MNI coordinates for peaks within each cluster and corresponding statistics are as follows: Panel A, pACC-lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) (−40, 30, −14, t73 = 3.42, z = 3.28, k = 113), pACC-medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) (−4, 36, −14, t73 = 3.85, z = 3.66, k = 122), and pACC-right orbitofrontal cortex (ROFC) (34, 32, −14, t73 = 5.14, z = 4.73, k = 295); Panel C, dMPFC-ventral striatum (−22, 10, −2, t73 = 2.87, z = 2.78, k = 49). Panels B and D illustrate the mean (±standard error) extracted connectivity coefficients for the clusters profiled in A and C as a function of the parental education groups described in Figure 1 and in the Materials and Methods.

Peter J. Gianaros, et al. Cereb Cortex. 2011 April;21(4):896-910.

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