Figure 1

Figure 1. From: Neuroendocrine Disruption: Historical Roots, Current Progress, Questions for the Future.

Schematic representation of exposure of neuroendocrine systems in humans to EDCs. Depicted here is how exposure of multiple generations can occur via maternal exposure. EDCs can directly modify the mother’s brain, hormones and the germ cells in her ovary. The mother’s hormones, brain and behavior can be altered by EDCs, and her germ cells can be subject to epigenetic programming through a variety of molecular mechanisms. At the same time, her developing fetus is exposed to EDCs through placental transfer, and infants are exposed via breast milk. Further exposure to suckling infants may occur through formula feeding (soy products, plastics in baby bottles). In addition, the germ cells of these developing infants and fetuses, which represent the third generation, may be modified through behavioral, hormonal, and epigenetic mechanisms of the previous two generations.

Andrea C. Gore, et al. Front Neuroendocrinol. ;31(4):395-399.

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