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1.
Figure 2

Figure 2. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) activation suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of macrophages. (a and b) Effect of poly I:C treatment on HIV Bal (a) or Jago (b) infection of macrophages. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated doses, either 12 hr before or 72 hr after HIV infection for 12 hr. Culture supernatants collected at day 12 after HIV infection were subjected to reverse transcriptase assay. (c) Effect of poly I:C treatment on HIV-induced syncytium formation in macrophages. The morphology of untreated and uninfected, untreated and HIV-infected (Bal strain), and poly I:C-pretreated (1 μg/ml) and HIV-infected macrophages was observed and photographed under a light microscope (magnification, ×200) at day 8 post-infection. The arrows indicate giant syncytium formation.

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.
2.
Figure 1

Figure 1. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and regulation in macrophages. (a) TLR expressions in macrophages. Total RNA extracted from blood monocyte-derived macrophages (7 day-cultured macrophages) was subjected to the reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the primers specific for human TLR-1 to TLR-10. Amplified PCR products were displayed on 2% agarose gel. Sizes were estimated from the DNA ladder (100-base-pair fragments) co-electrophoresed with gyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). (b) Effect of TLR-3 activation on TLR expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells were then subjected to the real-time RT-PCR for the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of TLR-1 to TLR-10 and GAPDH. The data are expressed as mRNA levels for TLR-1 to TLR-10 relative (fold) to the control (without poly I:C treatment, which is defined as 1).

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.
3.
Figure 5

Figure 5. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) activation up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α/β (MIP-1α/β) expression. (a) MIP1-α/β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time polymerase chain reaction for the mRNA levels of MIP1-α, MIP1-β and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The data are expressed as MIP1-α or MIP1-β mRNA levels relative (fold) to the control (without poly I:C treatment, which is defined as 1). (b) MIP1-α/β protein expression. Seven day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 24 hr. Supernatants were then collected from cell cultures for the protein levels of MIP1-α/β. The results shown are the mean ± SD of triplicate wells, representing three independent experiments (**P < 0.01; *P < 0.05).

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.
4.
Figure 6

Figure 6. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) activation up-regulates tetherin expression. (a) Tetherin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 4 or 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the mRNA levels of tetherin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The data are expressed as tetherin mRNA levels relative (fold) to the control (without poly I:C treatment, which is defined as 1). The results shown are the mean ± SD of triplicate wells, representing three independent experiments (**P < 0.01; *P < 0.05). (b and c) Tetherin protein expression. Seven day-cultured macrophages were treated with (c) or without (b) poly I:C (1 μg/ml) for 12 hr. Cells were stained with fluorescence-conjugated anti-human tetherin (CD317) antibody and analysed for tetherin expression by flow cytometry. Shaded histogram, control staining with isotope-matched antibody (immunoglobulin G2b); open histogram, tetherin staining with monoclonal antibody CD317. A representative histogram graph was shown.

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.
5.
Figure 3

Figure 3. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) activation induces interferon-α/β (IFN-α/β) and interferon regulation factor (IRF) expressions. (a) IFN-α/β messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the mRNA levels of IFN-α/β and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The data are expressed as IFN mRNA levels relative (fold) to the control (without poly I:C treatment, which is defined as 1). (b) IFN-α/β protein expression. Seven day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 24 hr. Supernatants collected from cultures were then assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the IFN-α/β proteins. (c) IRF mRNA expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with or without poly I:C at the indicated concentrations for 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time RT-PCR for the mRNA levels of IRF-1, IRF-3, IRF-5, IRF-7, IRF-9 and GAPDH. The data are expressed as IRF mRNA levels relative (fold) to the control. The results shown are the mean ± SD of triplicate wells, representing three independent experiments (**P < 0.01; *P < 0.05).

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.
6.
Figure 4

Figure 4. From: A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.

Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation modulates interferon (IFN) -signalling responsive antiviral elements. (a) Anti-viral factors expression. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were treated with poly I:C at the indicated doses for 12 hr. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of A3G, MxA, ISG-56, OAS-1, PKR and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The data are expressed as A3G, MxA, ISG-56, OAS-1 or PKR mRNA levels relative (fold) to the control (without poly I:C treatment, which is defined as 1). (b) Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microRNA (miRNA) expression. Total RNA extracted from cells was then subjected to the real-time RT-PCR for cellular miRNA28, miRNA125b, miRNA150, miRNA223, miRNA382 and GAPDH mRNA quantification. (c) IFN-α/β induces anti-HIV miRNAs in macrophages. Seven-day-cultured macrophages were cultured in the presence or absence of IFN-α/β (100 μg/ml) for 6 hr. Cells were collected and subjected to RNA extraction for miRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR. The data are expressed as the miRNA levels relative (fold) to the control (without IFN-α/β treatment, which is defined as 1). The results shown are the mean ± SD of triplicate wells, representing three independent experiments (**P < 0.01; *P < 0.05).

Yu Zhou, et al. Immunology. 2010 September;131(1):40-49.

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