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Results: 5

1.
Fig. 5

Fig. 5. From: Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

Brain activity related to the 9-s and 18-s control condition. Time activity curves registered in the ROI for the 9-s and 18-s encoding versus control conditions displayed for the control phase lasted on average 7.5 s and 12.7 s, respectively. No significant slopes are detected during this control duration phase.

Marc Wittmann, et al. Neuropsychologia. ;48(10):3110-3120.
2.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

Significant brain activation for the contrast reproduction versus encoding phase (p < 0.01, corrected) on two axial (z = 2, 12) and one sagittal plane (x = 7). Stronger activation in the reproduction phase is colored in yellow to red (focus point: bilateral anterior insula, a Ins), stronger activation in the encoding phase is coded in blue (focus point: bilateral posterior insula, p Ins).

Marc Wittmann, et al. Neuropsychologia. ;48(10):3110-3120.
3.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

Brain activity during the 9-s and 18-s reproduction phase. A sagittal (x=4) and an axial slice (z=2) show significant brain activity (p < 0.01, corrected) in three regions encompassing right medial frontal areas (SMA, medial F), left and right anterior insula (a Ins) as well as inferior frontal cortex (IF) as related to the reproduction versus control contrast in the 9-s and 18-s conditions. Time activity curves in the ROI as registered during the reproduction phase, namely right SMA and bilateral anterior insula (a Ins) and inferior frontal (IF) cortex, peak just before the button press.

Marc Wittmann, et al. Neuropsychologia. ;48(10):3110-3120.
4.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

Brain activity during the 9-s (left) and 18-s (right) encoding phase. A sagittal (x=8) and an axial slice (z=14) show significant brain activity (p < 0.01, corrected) in three regions encompassing a bilateral medial frontal area (SMA), left and right posterior insula (p Ins) as well as superior temporal cortex (ST) as related to the encoding versus control contrast in the 9-s and 18-s conditions. Individual time activity curves (set to zero at the onset of the stimulus) show an inverted u-shape function in the SMA and climbing brain activity that peaks at the end of the stimulus (with a delay of ca. 6 seconds reflecting the hemodynamic response function) for left (L) and right (R) p Ins, ST.

Marc Wittmann, et al. Neuropsychologia. ;48(10):3110-3120.
5.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

Experimental Design. Trial events in the temporal reproduction and the control reaction time task: To discourage subjects from counting (which they were instructed not to), in both the timing and the control task, a secondary memory task had to be performed. In the timing task, subjects first saw for three seconds four numbers on the screen. Then, a continuous 1.2 Hz tone was presented for one of three durations (3-, 9-, 18-s). After the tone had stopped subjects had to press a button as fast as possible. After a short pause a continuous 2 Hz tone was presented that had to be stopped by pressing a button when the subjects thought that it has lasted as long as the first stimulus. Then one single number appeared on the screen and subjects had to decide by pressing one of two buttons whether it was one of the four numbers seen at the beginning of the trial. The control reaction time task was characterized by subjects reacting as fast as possible with a button press when a 1.2 Hz tone stopped.

Marc Wittmann, et al. Neuropsychologia. ;48(10):3110-3120.

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