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Results: 4

1.
Fig. 4

Fig. 4. From: Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation.

Normal intestinal rotation. a, b Primary intestinal loop before rotation (lateral view). The superior mesenteric artery forms the axis of the loop and of subsequent rotation. ce Counter-clockwise rotation of the gut occurs through 270° concomitantly with herniation of the small intestinal loops followed by return of the gut to the abdominal cavity during the third month of gestation. Redrawn from Filston and Kirks [2], with permission

Vicki Martin, et al. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010 August;26(8):769-781.
2.
Fig. 2

Fig. 2. From: Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation.

Requirement of normal Foxf1 function for lateral plate differentiation and coelom formation. Differentiation of somatopleure and splanchnopleure and the associated formation of the coelomic cavity is disturbed in Foxf1−/− embryos. a, c Wildtype, b, dFoxf1−/− embryo at mouse embryonic day 8.5. Separation of the somatic and splanchnic mesodermal layers is incomplete in the Foxf1−/− embryo, and formation of the coelomic cavity is disrupted, with failure of the coelomic cavity to invade the lateral plate mesoderm. nt neural tube, da dorsal aorta, co coelom, am amnion, so somatic mesoderm or somatopleure, sp splanchnic mesoderm or splanchnopleure. Reproduced from Ref. [6], Figure 8, page 163, with permission

Vicki Martin, et al. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010 August;26(8):769-781.
3.
Fig. 3

Fig. 3. From: Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation.

Model for the directional looping of the gut tube. See text for additional explanation. a Initially, the gut tube is suspended symmetrically from the dorsal mesentery within the body cavity. b Subsequently, expression of the transcription factors Pitx2 and Isl1 under the influence of Nodal is restricted to the left side, and of Tbx18 to the right. This results in morphological changes to the epithelium and mesenchyme of the mesentery: columnar epithelium on the left as opposed to cuboidal on the right, and aggregation of mesenchymal cells on the left as opposed to dispersal on the right. The result of these changes is a leftward tilt of the dorsal mesentery, which consequently takes on a trapezoidal rather than a rectangular shape. These studies were performed in the chick embryo, stage HH20-22 (Hamburger and Hamilton [56]), corresponding to mouse embryonic day 10.5–10.75. Redrawn from Davis et al. [7], Figure 7, with permission

Vicki Martin, et al. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010 August;26(8):769-781.
4.
Fig. 1

Fig. 1. From: Review of genetic factors in intestinal malrotation.

Transverse sections showing schema for development of mesodermal germ layer and gut tube. a Day 17, b day 19, c day 20, d day 21. The thin mesodermal sheet gives rise to paraxial mesoderm (future somites), intermediate mesoderm (future excretory units) and the lateral plate, which divides into parietal and visceral layers lining the intra-embryonic body cavity. e Day 25 (approx), f day 30 (approx). g Dorsal mesoderm shows leftward tilt. Timing of this event in humans is currently not known. At the end of the fourth week, visceral mesoderm layers are fused in the midline and form a double-layered membrane (dorsal mesentery) between right and left halves of the body cavity. Redrawn from Langman’s Medical Embryology 11th Edition, Sadler TW, Figure 6.8, page 75 and Figure 14.3, page 211, with permission

Vicki Martin, et al. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010 August;26(8):769-781.

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