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FIGURE 1. A Model of Emotional Under- and Overmodulation in PTSDa. From: Emotion Modulation in PTSD: Clinical and Neurobiological Evidence for a Dissociative Subtype.

a In this model, reexperiencing/hyperarousal reactivity to traumatic reminders is viewed as a form of emotion dysregulation that involves emotional undermodulation, mediated by failure of prefrontal inhibition of limbic regions. In contrast, the dissociative reactions to traumatic reminders are described as a form of emotion dysregulation that involves emotional overmodulation, mediated by midline prefrontal inhibition of the same limbic regions. Figure adapted from Hopper et al. (21). Copyright © 2007 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. Reprinted with permission.

Ruth A. Lanius, et al. Am J Psychiatry. ;167(6):640-647.

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